Could you please show me the way? (2023)

For starred forms, see K below,

A could you* is a very useful request form:

possibly can be added to show that the speaker is asking for something extra:

Could you possibly lend me £500?

couldn't expresses the speaker's hopes for a more favorable answer than has just been indicated;

I can't wait. ~ Couldn't you wait five minutes?

you couldn't. . . could you? can be used to express a not very hopeful request;

You couldn't wait five minutes, could you?

You couldn't give me a hand with this, could you?

(The speaker doesn't really expect a favourable answer in either case.)

Bwill/would you* (please):

Will/Would you please count your change? would you (please) has the same meaning as could you. will you is more authoritative and therefore less polite. will/would you can be placed at the end of the phrase:

Shut the door, will you?

But this form can only be used in very friendly relaxed situationsUsed otherwise, it would sound very rude. will/would can also be used for third person requests:

Would Mrs Jones, passenger to Leeds, please come to the Enquiry Desk?

Will anyone who saw the accident please phone this number . . . ? (police announcement)

Cyou'll. . . won't you? is a persuasive type of request used mainly among friends: You'll write to me. won't you?

Dwould you mind* + gerund (see 263): Would you mind moving your car?

E perhaps you would implies confidence that the other person will perform this service. It would not be used at the beginning of a conversation or letter, but would be possible later on:

Perhaps you would let me know when your new stock arrives = Please let me know when your new stock arrives.

F if you would is a useful request form. It is used in spoken English for routine-type requests which the speaker is quite sure wi!l be obeyed:

If you'd fill up this form/take a seat/wait a few minutes, (in an office) If you'd sign the register/follow the porter, (in a hotel)

just can be added to show that the action required is very easy:

If you'd just put your address on the back of the cheque, (in a shop) G would you like to . . . ? is also a possible request form:

Would you like to take a seat? = Please take a seat.

H I should/would be very grateful if you would is a formal request form found chiefly in letters but possible in speech:

I should be very grateful if you would let me know if you have any vacancies.

IWould you be good/kind enough to keep me informed? Would you be so hind as to keep me informed?

JI wish you would can be a request form. It sometimes implies that the other person should be helping or have offered to do it (see 301):

I wish you 'd give me a hand.

KStarred would and could forms may be introduced by phrases such as do you think? I wonder(ed) if, I was wondering if (see 104):

Do you think you could lend me £500?

285 Requests with might

Ayou might can express a very casual request; You might post these/or me.

But it can only be used in friendly relaxed situations, otherwise it wouid sound rude.

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BWith a certain intonation and a strong stress on the important word might can express a reproachful request: You might ^help me with stress on help might imply 'Why aren't you helping me?/You should be helping me'.

Cmight can also be used with other persons to express this sort of irritation: He might 'pay us.' with stress on pay could mean 'We are annoyed that he doesn't pay/hasn't paid us'.

Dmight + perfect infinitive can express irritation at or reproach for the non-performance of an action in the past: You might have 'told us with stress on told could mean 'You should have told us',

6 Invitations

Awill you have/would you tike + noun:

Will you have a drink? (sometimes shortened to Have a drink.)

Would you like a coffee? Note that do you want is not an invitation. (For want and would like. see 296.)

In indirect speech we use offer + indirect object (= person addressed) + noun: She offered me a drink/a coffee.

B will/would/could you? would you like to?

Will you have lunch with me tomorrow?'is informal, but Would/Could you have lunch with me? or Would you like to have lunch with me? can be used in both informal and formal situations. These invitations would be reported by invite/ask + direct object + to + noun, or invite/ask 4- direct object + infinitive:

He invited me to lunch/to have lunch with him. C Answers to invitations

Offers of a drink/a cigarette etc. are usually answered: Yes, please or No, thank you.

Invitations with would you/could you/would you like are usually answered: I'd like to very much/I'd love to or

I'd like to very much but I'm afraid I can't. wouldn't like, of course, would not be possible. An invitation and answer might be reported:

He invited us to dinner/to a party/to spend the weekend with him and we accepted/but we refused/but we had to refuse because . . .

D When the speaker doesn't really expect: his offer/invitation to be accepted he can say: You wouldn't like another drink, would you? (Perhaps the speaker would like another drink himself, and wants an excuse. He doesn't really expect that his friend will accept, though.) You wouldn't like to come with me, would you? (Again he doesn't really expect an acceptance.)

287 Advice forms

A must, ought to and should can be used for advice: You must read this book. It's marvellous.

You should grow your own vegetables. You ought to plant some trees.

In indirect speech must, ought to and should here can remain unchanged or be reported by advise 4- object:

He advised me to plant trees.

B you had better + bare infinitive (see 120):

You'd better take off your wet shoes. You 'd better not wait any longer. had better can be used with the third person:

He'd better stop taking those pills. C if I were you I should/would:

If I were you I 'd buy a car.

This is often shortened to I should/would with a slight stress on the I; i/'d buy a car.

In indirect speech If I were you I should/would . . . is reported by advise + object: He advised me to buy a car.

D I advise/would advise you + infinitive:

I (would) advise you to apply at once or I advise/would advise + gerund: l('d) advise applying at once.

E why don't you . . . ? can be either advice or suggestion:

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Why don't you learn to play your guitar? Why don't you take a holiday? When this is advice it is reported by advise + object:

He advised me to take a holiday. F it is time you +- past tense:

/; ;s time you bought a new coat. (See 293.) This would be reported: He said it was time I bought a new coat.

Advice with may/might as well + infinitive

This construction can express very unemphatic advice: You may/might as veil ask him =

If would do no harm to ask him.

She said I might as well ask him. This form can be used with the third person: He may as well come with me and the speaker may use it of himself:

As there isn 't anything more to do, I may as well go home early. Suggestions First person suggestions with let's or shall I/we let's + infinitive:

Let's paint it ourselves. shall we is sometimes added: Let's get the paint today, shall we? shall I/we + infinitive: Shall we invite Bill?

Suggestions with let's ur shall we can be answered affirmatively by yes, let's. let's not could be used jokingly as a negative answer:

Let's take the tent. ~ Let's not! Or it can introduce a negative suggestion: Let's not start too early. don't let's could also be used here:

Don't let's start too early.

First and second person suggestions

why don't we/you + infinitive or why not + infinitive/expression of time or place;

Why don't we meet and discuss it? Why not meet and discuss it?

Where shall we meet? ~ Why not here?AVhy not at the hotel? In colloquial English what's wrong with/what's the matter with + noun could also be used:

What's wrong with the hotel? what/how about + gerund/noun: Where shall we sleep?

What about renting a caravan?

What about a bed and breakfast place? suppose I/we/you + present or past tense: Suppose you offer/offered to pay him?

C First, second or third person suggestions with suggest or propose

suggest (+ possessive adjective) + gerund, or suggest that •+• subject + present tense/should.

propose is used in exactly the same way but is slightly more formal than suggest.

In the active, suggest + should + infinitive is more forma] than suggest + a present or past tense.

/ suggest (your) selling it.

We suggest that you should sell it. (formal)

I propose that the secretary sends in/should send in a report, (formal)

I propose that a report (should) be sent in. (formal) that. . . should is necessary in the passive. With should be it is possible in formal English to omit the should, leaving the be alone, as shown above.

D Suggestions in indirect speech Suggestions can be reported by:

suggest/suggested (+ possessive adjective) + gerund, or suggest that + subject + present tense/should, or suggested that + subject + past tense/should, or suggest (any tense) + noun/pronoun:

Tom suggests/suggested (our) having a meeting. Ann suggests that he sells/should sell his house. Ann suggested that he sold/should sell it.

Mr Jones suggested a meeting. (For suggestions with let's, see also 322.)

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The subjunctive Form

The present subjunctive has exactly the same form as the infinitive;

therefore the present subjunctive of to be is be for all persons, and the present subjunctive of all other verbs is the same as their present tense except that s is not added for the third person singular:

The queen lives here. (simple present tense) Long live the queen! (subjunctive)

(, The past subjunctive has exactly the same form as the simple past • except that with the verb be the past subjunctive form is either . I/he/she/it was or I/he/she/it were. In expressions of doubt or

unreality were is more usual than was:

He behaves as though he were the owner. (But he is not the owner.) In conversation, however, was is often used instead of were

(see also 225).

Past subjunctives are often known as 'unreal pasts'. Use of the present subjunctive

The present subjunctive is used in certain exclamations to express a wish or hope, very often involving supernatural powers:

(God) bless you! God save the queen! Heaven help us! Curse this fog!

Come what may, we'll standby you! Notice also the phrase if need be, which means 'if it is necessary':

If need be we can always bring another car.

It is sometimes used in poetry, either to express a wish or in clauses of condition or concession:

STEVENSON: Fair the day shine as it shone in my childhood. (May the day shine/I hope it will shine.)

SHAKESPEARE: If this be error, and upon me proved ... (if this is error)

BYRON: Though the heart be still as loving . . . (though the heart is)

As seen in 235 certain verbs are followed by should + infinitive constructions. When the infinitive is be, the should is sometimes omitted:

He suggested that a petition {should) be drawn up. The infinitive thus left alone becomes a subjunctive.

292as if/as though + past subjunctive

The past subjunctive can be used after as if/as though to indicate unreality or improbability or doubt in the present (there is no difference between as if and as though):

He behaves as if he owned the place. (But he doesn't own it or probably doesn't own it or we don't know whether he owns it

or not.)

He talks as though he knew where she was. (But he doesn't know or he probably doesn't know or we don't know whether he knows

or not.)

He orders me about as if I were his wife. (but I am not) The verb preceding as if/though can be put into a past tense without changing the tense of the subjunctive:

He talks/talked as though he knew where she was. After as if/as though we use a past perfect when referring to a real or imaginary action in the past:

He talks about Rome as though he had been there himself. (But he

hasn't or probably hasn't or we don't know whether he has or not.) Again, the verb preceding as if/though can be put into a past tense without changing the tense of the subjunctive:

He looks/looked as though he hadn't had a decent meal fora month.

293it is time + past subjunctive (unreal past)

it is time can be followed by the infinitive: It's time to start or by for + object 4- infinitive:

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/('s time for us to go or by subject + a past subjunctive:

/('s time we went. It's time we were leaving. There is a slight difference in meaning between the forms. it is time + infinitive merely states that the correct time has arrived;

it is time + subject + past subjunctive implies that it is a little late. high can be added to emphasize this idea:

/t's high time we left. it is time + I/he/she/it cannot be followed by were:

It's time I was going. (For past subjunctives/unreal pasts in conditional sentences, see 222; after would rather/sooner, see 297; after wish + subject, see 300; in indirect speech, see 310.)

care, like, love, hate, prefer, wish

care and like care is chiefly used in the negative and interrogative.

care for + noun/gerund is very similar to like + noun/gerund. We can say:

(a)Does/Did Tom care for living in the country? or Does/Did Tom like living in the country?

(b)You don't care for science fiction, do you? or

You don't like science fiction, do you? (b) above could be answered: / don't care for it or / dan't like if much or Oh yes, I like it.

(care would not be possible here.) care in the interrogative sometimes carries a hint of doubt: Does Ann care for horror movies? (The speaker thinks that she

probably doesn't, or is surprised that she apparently does.) The feeling of doubt is more noticeable with would you care (for). . . ?

would care and would like

would care for + noun and would care + infinitive are similar to would like + noun/infinitive. But would care (for) is not normally "used in the affirmative, and offers expressed by would you care (for), . , ? are less confident than would you like . . . ? offers:

(a)TOM: Would you care for a lift, Ann? (Perhaps his car is uncomfortable and she likes comfort.)

(b)TOM: Would you care to see my photos, Ann? (He isn't sure that

she'll want to see them.) A favourable answer to (b) above would be: '•/ I'd like to see them very much.

'As in the affirmative, would like replaces would care. 'Similarly in negative statements:

I wouldn't care to live on the 35th floor ~ Oh, I'd rather like it. .would care for/would like can sometimes be used with gerunds. ,<See 295 B.)

would have cared (for) and would have liked Both here refer to actions which didn't take place:

ANN: I'd have liked to go with Tom. 0 wanted to go but didn't get my wish. See also 296 D- care could not be used here.) BILL: But he walked all the way! You wouldn't have cared for/have liked that, would you? or Would you have cared for/have liked that?

D Do not connise care as used above with care for (= look after) and care (about):

1care for (= look after) is used chiefly in the passive: The old people were cared for by their families.

2care (about) (= feel concerned) is used chiefly in the negative and interrogative.

I don't care (about) appears similar to I don't mind, which can often be used instead: It will be very expensive. - I don't care/mind or

/don't care about/mind the expense or

/don't care/mind what it costs.

But note that I don't care (about) = 'I am indifferent (to)' while I don't mind = 'I don't object (to)', i.e. 'He/It doesn't worry/upset/ annoy me.'

I don't mind is much more polite than I don't care, which often sounds arrogant and selfish. In the negative interrogative either can be used:

Don't you care/mind what happens to him?

Didn 'tyou care/mind what happened? But in the ordinary interrogative there is more difference between the two;

Do you care? •= Are you concerned?'/Do you feel concern? while Do you mind? usually means Do you object? (See also 263.)

295 care, like, love, hate, prefer

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A When used in the conditional, these verbs are usually followed by the infinitive: Would you care/like to come with me? (Would it please you to come

with me?)

I'd like to (come) very much or I'd love to (come).

I'd hate to spend Christmas alone. Here we are thinking of a particular action in the future.

BBut would care for, would like can be followed by gerunds when we are not thinking of a particular action but are considering the subject's tastes generally. Note also that here would care for/would like are replaceable by would enjoy:

She would like/would enjoy riding if she could ride better. I wonder if Tom would care for/would enjoy hang-gliding. hate and prefer can be used similarly but are less common.

CWhen used in the present or past tenses, care for, like (= enjoy), love, hate and prefer are usually followed by the gerund:

He doesn't/didn't care for dancing.

They love/loved wind-surfing.

He prefers/preferred walking to cycling.

But the infinitive is not impossible and is particularly common in American English: They love/loved to run on the sands.

' Note however that like can also mean 'think wise or right', and is then always followed by the infinitive:

She likes them to play in the garden. (She thinks they are safe there.)

/ like to go to the dentist twice a year. (I think this wise.) . Compare this with I like going to the dentist, which implies that I enjoy my visits. Similarly / don't like to go = 'I don't think it right to go' while I don't like going == 'I don't enjoy going'.

Notice also another difference between these two negative forms-1 don't like toga usually means 'I don't go' (because 1 don't think it right). / don't like going usually means 'I go. although I don't enjoy it'. Similarly / didn 't like to open the letter means 'I didn't open it because I didn't think it right to do so' but / didn't like opening the letter means •I opened it reluctantly'.

E enjoy and dislike are always followed by noun/pronoun or gerund. i would like and want

{ Sometimes either would like or want can be used:

1 In requests and questions about requests (but would not like is not used here: see Bl below):

CUSTOMER: I'd tike some raspberries, please or / want some raspberries, please.

GREENGROCER: I'm afraid I haven't any. Would you like some strawberries?

CUSTOMER: No, I don't want any strawberries, thanks, (wouldn 'I like is not possible.) I would like is usually more polite than I want.

would you like? is much more polite and helpful than do you want? would you like? can imply a willingness to satisfy the other person's wishes, do you want? doesn't imply this. Someone dealing with a customer or client, therefore, will normally use would you like?:

CALLER: I'd like to/I want to speak to Mr X, please. TELEPHONIST: Mr X is out. Would you like to speak to Mr Y?

2 When we are not making requests, but merely talking about our wishes, we can use either would like or want in affirmative, interrogative or negative. There is no difference in meaning, though / want usually sounds more confident than / would like and / want is not normally used for unrealizable wishes:

/ would like to live on Mars.

B would like and want are not interchangeable in the following uses: 1 In invitations we use would you like? not do you want?

Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like to come to the theatre? do you want? used here would be a question only. not an invitation.

2 wouldn't like and don't want are different.

don't want = 'have no wish for', but wouldn't like = 'would dislike'.

wouldn't like cannot therefore be used in answer to invitations or offers, as it would be impolite. Instead we use don't want or some other form:

Would you like some more coffee? - No. I don't want any more,

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thanks or No, thanks.

C In the past the two forms behave differently. In indirect speech want becomes wanted, but would like remains unchanged:

Tom said, 'I would like/want to see it' =

Tom said he would like/wanted to see it. But if we don't use a reported speech construction we have to say Turn wanted to see it. (We cannot use would like here, as Tom would like to see it has a present or future meaning.)

D would like has two past forms: would like + perfect infinitive or would have liked + infinitive/noun/pronoun. These forms express unrealized wishes only:

I'd like to have gone skiing or

I'd have liked a day's skiing. (But I didn't get my wish.)

297would rather/sooner and prefer/would prefer

There is no difference between would rather and would sooner, but would rather is more

often heard.

A would rather/sooner is followed by the bare infinitive when the subject of would rather/sooner is the same as the subject of the following action:

Tom would rather read than talk.

1would rather/sooner + infinitive can be used instead of prefer + gerund for present actions: Tom prefers reading to talking.

Note: would rather + infinitive •+• than + infinitive, but prefer + gerund + to + gerund, prefer can also be followed by a noun, but would rather always requires a verb;

He prefers wine to beer =

He would rather drink wine than beer. I prefer tennis to golf =

I'd rather play tennis than golf.

Some statements with prefer + noun have no exact would rather equivalent: He prefers dogs to cats and He would rather have dogs than cats are not exactly the same.

would rather + infinitive cannot express preferences in the past, so the past equivalent of Tom would rather read than talk would be Tom preferred reading to talking/liked reading better than talking. But see 4 below.

would rather + infinitive can also be used instead of would prefer + infinitive:

I'd rather fly than go by sea/I'd prefer to fly. Note that with would prefer, only the preferred action is mentioned;

see above. If, therefore, we want to mention both actions we must used would rather. Similarly with nouns:

Would you like some gin? — I'd prefer a coffee or I'd rather have coffee than gin.

Both would rather/sooner and would prefer can be followed by the perfect infinitive:

We went by sea but I'd rather have gone by air/I'd prefer to have gone by air. (I wanted to go by air, but didn't get my wish.)

This is somewhat similar to would like + perfect infinitive, which expresses an unfulfilled wish. (See 296 D.)

Subject + would rather/sooner is followed by subject + past tense (subjunctive) when the two subjects are different:

Shall I give you a cheque? ~ I'd rather you paid cash. Note the use of would rather + subject + didn't for a negative preference:

Would you like him to paint it? - No, I'd rather he didn't (paint it).

Ann wants to tell Tom, but I'd rather she didn't (tell him). prefer, however, like like, can take object + infinitive:

I'd prefer you to pay cash. I'd prefer him not to paint it. I'd prefer her not to tell Tom.

298 More examples of preference

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I like hot weather better than cold = I prefer hot weather to cold = I'd rather/sooner have hot weather than cold.

I like skiing better than skating = I prefer skiing to skating = I'd rather/sooner ski than skate.

I liked playing in matches better than watching them = I preferred playing matches to watching them.

(would rather/sooner could not be used here.)

CWould you like to start today or would you rather wait/would you prefer to wait till tomorrow? ~ I'd rather go today (than wait till tomorrow). I'd rather not wait. Or

I'd prefer to start today. I'd prefer not to wait. I'd rather deliver it by hand than post it. He says he'd rather go to prison than pay the fine.

I'd rather pay his fine for him than let him go to prison. rather than . . . would + infinitive is possible in formal English:

Rather than let him go to prison I would pay his fine myself.

DDo you want Ann to repair it herself ~ I'd prefer her to ring/I'd rather she rang the electrician or I'd rather she didn't try to repair it herself.

They want to camp in my garden but I'd rather they didn't. I'd rather they camped by the river.

He usually has a pub lunch, but she 'd prefer him to come home for a meal/she 'd rather he came home for lunch. She 'd rather he didn't spend money in pubs.

299 wish, want and would like

wish, want and would like all mean 'desire'.

wish is the most formal. For want and would like, see 296.

A wish can be followed directly by an infinitive or by object + infinitive:

Why do/did you wish to see the manager? ~ I wish/wished to make a complaint. The government does not wish Dr Jekyll Hyde to accept a professorship at a foreign university.

In less formal language we would use want or would like: I would like/want to speak to Ann.

I wanted to speak to Ann.

She doesn't/didn't want the children to stay up late. (If we used like here instead of want, it would mean that she doesn't/didn't approve of the children staying up late.)

B want and would like can be followed directly by nouns: I want/would like a single room.

He wanted a single room. wish has a more restricted use:

We can wish someone luck/success/a happy Christmas etc.;

He said, 'Good luck!' = He wished me luck.

We can also send someone 'good/best wishes':

With all good wishes, yours, Bill (at the end of a letter) Best wishes/or the New Year (on a New Year card)

Except in greetings of this kind, wish is not normally followed by a noun object. wish + for can be followed by a noun/pronoun, but usually implies that

the subject has little hope of obtaining his wish. It is chiefly used in exclamations: How he wished for a drink! (Presumably he had no hope of getting one.)

What he chiefly wished for was a chance to explain. (It seems unlikely that he was going to get this chance.)

300 wish + subject + unreal past

wish (that) + subject + a past tense (subjunctive; see 290 B) expresses regret about a present situation:

I wish I knew his address = I'm sorry I don't know his address. I wish you could drive a car = I 'm sorry you can't drive a car.

I wish he was coming with us = I'm sorry he isn't coming with us. wish can be put into the past without changing the subjunctive:

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He wished he knew the address = He was sorry he didn't know the address.

Unreal past tenses do not change in indirect speech:

‘I wish I lived nearer my work,' he said = He said he wished he lived nearer his work.

Bwish (that) + subject + past perfect (subjunctive) expresses regret about a past situation:

I wish (that) I hadn't spent so much money = I'm sorry I spent so much money.

I wish you had written to him = I'm sorry you didn't write to him. wished can replace wish without changing the subjunctive:

I wished I hadn't spent so much money = I was sorry I had spent so much money.

These verbs will be reported unchanged:

‘I wished I had taken his advice,' she said = She (said she) wished she had taken his advice.

Cif only can be used in exactly the same way. It has the same meaning as wish but is more dramatic:

If only we knew where to look for him!

If only she had asked someone's advice!

301 wish (that) + subject + would

A wish + subject + past tense can express regret for a present situation, as shown in 300 above:

I wish that he wrote more regularly = I'm sorry he doesn't write more regularly.

Bwish + subject + would can be used similarly, but only with actions which the subject can control, i.e. actions he could change if he wished.

wish + would here can express interest in the subject's willingness/unwillingness to perform an action in the present. This is usually a habitual action.

/ wish he would write more often =-

I'm sorry he isn't willing to write more often.

I wish he would wear a coal = I'm sorry he refuses to wear a coat. The subject of wish cannot be the same as the subject of would, as this would be illogicalWe cannot therefore have I wish +- I would.

C wish + subject + would can also be used to express dissatisfaction with the present and a wish for change in the future:

/wish he would answer my Utter. (I have been waiting for an answer for a long time.)

/wish they would change the menu. (I'm tired of eating sausages.)

I wish they would stop making bombs. But the speaker is normally not very hopeful that the change will take place, and often, as in the third example above, has no hope at all. As in B above, wish + subject + would here is restricted to actions where change is possible, and wish and would cannot have the same subject.

When there is a personal subject, the action is in the subject's control and the idea of wiilingness/unwillingness is still present, but wish + subject + would here can sometimes be used with inanimate subjects:

/ wish it would stop raining. I wish the sun would come out.

I wish prices would come down. I wish the train would came. wish + subject + would here is rather like would like, but would like is not restricted to actions where change is possible and does not imply dissatisfaction with the present situation. Also the would like construction does not imply any lack of hope:

/would like jack to study art. (i want him to study art/I hope he will study art.)

/tvish Peter would study art. (Peter has presumably refused to do this.)

D I wish you would is a possible request form. Here there is no feeling that the person addressed will refuse to perform the request, but there is often a feeling that this person is annoying or disappointing the speaker in some way: I wish you would help me often implies 'You should have offered to help me', and I wish you would stop huwmifig/interrupting/asking silly questions would imply that the speaker was irritated by the noise/the interruptions/the

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silly questions. However, the expression I wish you would can be used in answer to an offer of help, and does not then imply any dissatisfaction:

Shall I help you check the accounts? ~ I wish you would. (I'd be glad of your help.)

E if only + would can replace wish + would in B and C above. It cannot be used for requests as in D. if only ia more dramatic than wish: If only he would join our party!

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30

The passive voice

302

Form

A The passive of an active tense is formed by putting the verb to be into the same tense as the

active verb and adding the past participle of the active verb. The subject of the active verb

becomes the 'agent' of the passive verb. The agent is very often not mentioned. When it is

mentioned it is preceded by by and placed at the end of the clause:

This free was planted by my grandfather.

B Examples of present, past and perfect passive tenses:

Active

We keep the butter here.

Passive

The butter is kept here.

Active

They broke the window.

Passive The window was broken.

Active

People have seen wolves in She streets.

Passive Wolves have been seen in the streets.

C The passive of continuous tenses requires the present continuous forms of to be, which are

not otherwise much used:

Active

They are repairing the bridge.

Passive The bridge is being repaired.

Active

They were carrying the injured player off the field.

Passive The injured player was being carried off the field.

Other continuous tenses are exceedingly rarely used in the passive, so that sentences such

as:

They have/had been repairing the road and

They will/would be repairing the road are not normally put into the passive,

D Auxiliary + infinitive combinations are made passive by using a passive infinitive:

Active

You must/should shut these doors.

Passive These doors must/should be shut.

Active

They should/ought fo have told him.

(perfect infinitive active)

Passive

He should/ought to have been told.

(perfect infinitive passive)

EOther infinitive combinations

Verbs of liking/loving/wanting/wishing etc. + object + infinitive form their passive with the passive infinitive:

Active He wants someone to take photographs. Passive He wants photographs to be taken.

With verbs of command/request/advice/invitation + indirect object + infinitive we form the passive by using the passive form of the main verb:

Active He invited me to go. Passive I was invited to go.

But with advise/beg/order/recommend/urge + indirect object + infinitive + object we can form the passive in two ways: by making the main verb passive, as above, or by advise etc. + that, should + passive infinitive:

Active He urged the Council to reduce the rates.

Passive The Council was/were urged to reduce the rates or He urged that the rates should be reduced.

agree/be anxious/arrange/be determined/determine/decide/demand + infinitive + object are usually expressed in the passive by that. . . should, as above:

Active He decided to sell the house.

Passive He decided that the house should lie sold. (See also 235.)

FGerund combinations

advise/insist/propose/recommend/suggest + gerund + object are usually expressed in the passive by that. . . should, as above:

Active He recommended using bullet-proof glass.

Passive He recommended that bullet-proof glass should be used.

(See 235.)

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it/they + need + gerund can also be expressed by it/they + need + passive infinitive. Both forms are passive in meaning.

Other gerund combinations are expressed in the passive by the passive gerund: Active I remember them taking me to the Zoo.

Passive / remember being taken to the Zoo.

303

Active tenses and their passive equivalents

Tense/Verb form

Active voice

Passive voice

Simple present

keeps

is kept

Present continuous

is keeping

is being kept

Simple past

kept

was kept

Past continuous

was keeping

was being kept

Present perfect

has kept

has been kept

Past perfect

had kept

had been kept

Future

wilt keep

will be kept

Conditional

would keep

would be kept

Perfect conditional

would have kept

would have been kept

Present infinitive

to keep

to be kept

Perfect infinitive

In have kept

to hare been kept

Present participle/gerund

keeping

being kept

Perfect participle

having kept

having been kept

B In colloquial speech get is sometimes used instead of be:

The eggs got (= were) broken. You 'II get (= be) sacked if you take any more time off.

CNote that in theory a sentence containing a direct and an indirect object, such as Someone gave her a bulldog, could have two passive forms:

She was given a bulldog. A bulldog was given to her.

The first of these is much the more usual, i.e. the indirect object usually becomes the subject

of the passive verb. (See also 302 E,F.)

D Questions about the identity of the subject of an active verb are usually expressed by an affirmative (see 55);

What delayed you?

Which leant won?

Questions about the subject of a passive verb are also expressed by an affirmative:

Something was done. ~ What was dime?

One of them was sold. ~ Which of them was sold?

Interrogative verbs in active questions may become affirmative verbs in passive questions:

What did they steal? (interrogative) What was stolen? (affirmative)

Note, however that, when the question refers to the agent, an interrogative verb is necessary:

Who painted it? (affirmative)

Who was it painted by? (interrogative)

304 Uses of the passive

The passive is used:

A When it is not necessary to mention the doer of the action as it is obvious who he is/was/will be:

The rubbish hasn 't been collected. The streets are swept every day. Your hand will be X- rayed.

B When we don't know, or don't know exactly, or have forgotten who did the action:

The minister was murdered. My cay has been moved! You'll be met at the station. I've been Sold that. . .

C When the subject of the active verb would be 'people':

He is suspected of receiving stolen goods. (People suspect him of . . ,) They are supposed to be living in New York. (People suppose that they are living . . .) (See 245, 306 for infinitive constructions with passive verbs.)

D When the subject of the active sentence would be the indefinite pronoun one: One sees this sort of advertisement everywhere would usually be expressed:

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This sort of advertisement is seen everywhere. In colloquial speech we can use the indefinite pronoun you (see 68) and an active verb:

You see this sort of advertisement everywhere. But more formal English requires one + active verb or the more usual passive form.

E When we are more interested in the action than the person who does it:

The house next door has been bought (by a M-r Jones). If, however, we know Mr Jones, we

would use the active;

Your/other's friend, Mr Jones, has bought the house next door. Similarly:

A new public library is being built (by our local council) though in more informal English we

could use the indefinite pronoun they (see 68) and an active verb:

They are building a new public library while a member of the Council will of course say:

We are/The council is building etc.

F The passive may be used to avoid an awkward or ungrammatical sentence. This is usually

done by avoiding a change of subject:

When he arrived home a detective arrested him would be better expressed:

When he arrived home he was arrested (by a detective).

When their mother was ill neighbours looked after the children would be better expressed:

When their mother was ill the children were looked after by

neighbours.

The passive is sometimes preferred for psychological reasons. A speaker may use it to

disclaim responsibility for disagreeable announcements:

EMPLOYER: Overtime rates are being rednced/wili have to be reduced. The active wili. of

course, be used for agreeable announcements:

I/We are going to increase overtime rates. The speaker may know who performed the action

but wish to avoid giving the name. Tom, who suspects Bill of opening his letters, may say

tactfully:

This letter has been opened!, instead of You've opened this letter!

For the have + object + past participle construction, I had the car resprayed, see 119.

305

Prepositions with passive verbs

As already noted, the agent, when mentioned, is preceded by by;

Active Dufy painted this picture. Passive This picture was painted by Dufy. Active What

makes these holes? Passive What are these holes made by?

Note, however, that the passive form of such sentences as: Smoke filled the room. Paint covered the lock. will be:

The room was filled with smoke. The lock was covered with paint. We are dealing here with materials used, not with the agents.

, When a verb + preposition 4- object combination is put into the passive, the preposition will remain immediately after the verb;

Active

We must write to him.

Passive

He must be written to.

Active

You can play with these cubs quite safely.

Passive

These cubs can be played with quite safely.

Similarly with verb + preposition/adverb combinations:

Active

They threw away the old newspapers.

Passive

The old newspapers were thrown away.

Active

He looked after the children well.

Passive

The children were well looked after.

306Infinitive constructions after passive verbs

After acknowledge, assume, believe, claim, consider, estimate, feel, find, know, presume, report, say, think, understand etc. (see also 245)

Sentences of the type People consider/know/think etc. that he is . . . have two possible passive forms:

It is considered/known/thought etc. that he is . . .

He is considered/known/thought etc. to be . . . Similarly:

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People said that he was jealous of her =

It was said that he was or He was said to he jealous of her. The infinitive construction is the neater of the two. It is chiefly used with to be though other infinitives can sometimes be used: He is thought to have information which will be useful to the police. When the thought concerns a previous action we use the perfect infinitive so that:

People believed that he was ==

It was believed that he was or He was believed to have been . . .

People know that he was =

It is known that he was or He is known to have been . . . This construction can be used with the perfect infinitive of any verb.

B After suppose

1 suppose in the passive can be followed by the present infinitive of any verb but this construction usually conveys an idea of duty and is not therefore the normal equivalent of suppose in the active:

You are supposed to know how to drive = It is your duty to know/Vim should know how to drive though He is supposed to be in Paris could mean either 'He ought to be there' or 'People suppose he is there'-

2suppose in the passive can similarly be followed by the perfect infinitive of any verb. This construction may convey an idea of duty but very often does not:

You are supposed to have finished = You should have finished but He is supposed to have

escaped disguised as a woman = People suppose that he escaped etc. C Infinitives placed after passive verbs are normally full infinitives:

Active We saw them go out. He made us work. Passive They were seen to go out. We were made to work.

let, however, is used without to:

Active They let us go. Passive We were let go.

D The continuous infinitive can be used after the passive of believe, know, report, say, suppose, think, understand:

He is believed/known/said/supposed/thought to be living abroad = People believe/know/say/suppose/think that he is living abroad. You are supposed to he working = You should be working. The perfect form of the continuous infinitive is also possible:

He is believed to have been waiting for a message = People believed that he was waiting for a message. You are supposed to have been working = You should have been working.

31 Indirect speech

307Direct and indirect (or reported) speech

There are two ways of relating what a person has said: direct and indirect. In direct speech we repeat the original speaker's exact words:

He said, 'I have lost my umbrella.'

Remarks thus repeated are placed between inverted commas, and a ' comma or colon is placed immediately before the remark. Direct speech

is found in conversations in books, in plays, and in quotations.

In indirect speech we give the exact meaning of a remark or a speech, without necessarily using the speaker's exact words:

He said (that) he had lost his umbrella.

There is no comma after say in indirect speech. that can usually be omitted after say and tell + object. But it should be kept after other verbs: complain, explain, object, point out, protest etc. Indirect speech is normally used when conversation is reported verbally, though direct speech is sometimes employed here to give a more dramatic effect.

When we turn direct speech into indirect, some changes are usually necessary. These are most easily studied by considering statements, questions, and commands separately.

308Statements in indirect speech: tense changes necessary

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A Indirect speech can be introduced by a verb in a present tense: He says that. . . This is usual when we are:

(a)reporting a conversation that is still going on

(b)reading a letter and reporting what it says

(c)reading instructions and reporting them

(d)reporting a statement that someone makes very often, e.g. Tom says that he'll never get married.

When the introductory verb is in a present, present perfect or future tense we can report the direct speech without any change of tense: PAUL (phoning from the station): I'm trying to get a taxi.

ANN (to Mary, who is standing beside her): Paul says he is trying to get a taxi.

B But indirect speech is usually introduced by a verb in the past tense. Verbs in the direct speech have then to be changed into a corresponding past tense. The changes are shown in the following table. (The that has been omitted in the last five examples.)

Direct speech

Indirect speech

Simple present

Simple past

‘I never ml meat.' he explained

= He explained that he never ate meat.

Present continuous

Past continuous

'I'm waiting/or Ann.' he said

= He said (thai) he was waiting for Ann.

Present perfect

Past perfect

I have found a flat,' he said

= He said (that) he had found a flat.

Present perfect continuous

Past perfect continuous

Hesaid, 'I've been waiting forages'

= He said he had been waiting for ages.

Simple past

Past perfect

I took it home with me,' she said

= She said she had taken it home with her.

Future

Conditional

He said, I will/shall be in Paris m

= He said he would be in Paris cm

Monday'

Monday.

Future continuous

Conditional continuous

'I will/shall be using the car myself

= She said she'd be using the car herself

on the 24th,' she said

on the 24th.

But note,

Conditional

Conditional

I said, 7 would/should like to see it'

= I said I would/should like to see it.

(No tense change. See also 227.)

CNote on I/we shall/should

'I/we shall' normally becomes he/she/they would in indirect speech:

I shall be 21 tomorrow,' said Bill = Bill said he would be 21 the following day. But if the sentence is reported by the original speaker, 'I/we shall' can become either I/we should or I/we would, would is the more common.

Similarly 'I/we should' usually becomes he/she/they would in indirect speech: 'If I had the instruction manual I should/would know what to do,'

said Bill =

Bill said that if he had the instructions he would know what to do. But if the sentence is reported by the original speaker 'I/we should' can either remain unchanged or be reported by wouldSee last example in B above.

309 Past tenses sometimes remain unchanged

A In theory the past tense changes to the past perfect, but in spoken English it is often left unchanged, provided this can be done without causing confusion about the relative times of the actions. For example, He said. 'I loved her' must become He said he had loved her as otherwise there would be a change of meaning. But He said, 'Ann arrived on Monday' could be reported He said Ann arrived/had arrived on Monday.

B The past continuous tense in theory changes to the past perfect continuous but in practice usually remains unchanged except when it refers to a completed action:

She said, 'We were thinking of selling the house but we have decided

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not to' =

She said that they had been thinking of selling the house but had decided not to. But He said, 'When I saw them they were playing tennis' = He said that when he saw them they were playing tennis.

C In written English past tenses usually do change to past perfect but there are the following exceptions:

1 Past/Past continuous tenses in time clauses do not normally change: He said, 'When we were living/lived in Paris . . .' =

He said that when they were living in Paris . . . The main verb of such sentences can either remain unchanged or become the past perfect:

He said, 'When we were living/lived in Paris we often saw Paul' = fie said that when they were living/lived in Paris they often saw/had often seen Paul.

2 A past tense used to describe a state of affairs which still exists when the speech is reported remains unchanged:

She said, 'I decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road' = She said that she had decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road.

310 Unreal past tenses (subjunctives) in indirect speech

AUnreal past tenses after wish, would rather/sooner and it is time do not change:

'We wish we didn't have to take exams.' said the children = The children said they

wished they didn't have to take exams.

'Bill wants to go alone,' said Ann, 'but I'd rather he went with a group' = Ann said that Bill wanted to go alone but that she 'd rather he went with a group.

'It's time we began planning our holidays,' he said = He said that it was time they began planning their holidays.

BI/he/she/we/they had better remains unchanged, you had better can remain unchanged or be reported by advise + object + infinitive (see 120):

'The children had better go to bed early,' said Tom = Tom said that the children had

better go to bed early.

'You'd better not drink the water,' she said = She advised/warned us not to drink the water. C Conditional sentences types 2 and 3 remain unchanged (see 229):

'If my children were older I would emigrate,' he said = He said that if his children were older he would emigrate.

311might, ought to, should, would, used to in indirect statements

A might remains unchanged except when used as a request form:

He said, 'Ann might ring today' = He said that Ann might ring (that day).

But 'You might post these for me' he said = He asked me to post them for him. (See 285 for requests.)

B ought to/should for obligation or assumption remains unchanged:

'They ought to/should widen this road,' I said = I said that they ought to/should widen the

road. I said,

'I should be back by six' (I assume I will be) = I said I should be back by six.

CBut you ought to/you should, if used to express advice rather than obligation, can be reported by advise + object + infinitive, you must can also express advice and be reported similarly. 'You ought to/should/must read the instructions,' said Ann = Ann advised/urged/warned me to read the instructions.

DThe advice form 'Ifl were you I should/would . . .' is normally reported by advise + object + infinitive:

'If I were you I'd wait,'I said = I advised him to waif,

EThe request form 'I should/would be (very) grateful if you would . . .' is normally reported by ask + object + infinitive:

'I'd be very grateful if you 'd keep me informed,' he said = He asked me to keep him informed.

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Fwould in statements doesn't change. But see 284 for would in requests etc.

Gused to doesn't change:

'I know the place well because I used to live here,' he explained = He explained thai he knew the place well because he used to live there.

(For could, see 312; for must, see 325.)

312could in indirect statements

(For could interrogative, see 283-4.)

A could for ability

1 could for present ability does not change:

'I can't/couldn't stand on my head.' he said = He said he couldn't stand on his head.

2 could for future ability can remain unchanged or be reported by would be able:

He said, 'I could do it tomorrow' = He said he could do it/would be able to do it the next day.

could in type 2 conditional sentences is reported similarly:

'If I had the tools I could mend it,' he said = He said that if he had the tools he could/would be able to mend it. would be able here implies that the supposition may be fulfilled. (Perhaps he'll be able to borrow tools.)

could in type 3 conditional sentences is reported unchanged.

could for past ability can remain unchanged or be reported by had been able:

‘I could read when I was three.' she boasted = She boasted that she could/had been able to read when she was three.

Bcould for permission

In type 2 conditional sentences could can remain unchanged or be reported by would be allowed to:

'If I paid my fine I could walk out of prison today,' he said = He said that if he paid his fine he could/would be allowed to walk etc.

could in the past can remain unchanged or be reported by was/were allowed to or had been allowed to:

He said, 'When I was a boy I could stay up as long as I liked' = He said that when he was a boy he could/was allowed to stay up or He said that as a boy he was/had been allowed etc.

313 Indirect speech: pronoun and adjective

Pronouns and possessive adjectives usually change from first or second to third person except when the speaker is reporting his own words:

He said, 'I've forgotten the combination of my safe' = He said that he had forgotten the combination of his safe.

I said, 'I like my new house' = I said that I liked my new house, (speaker reporting his own words)

Sometimes a noun must be inserted to avoid ambiguity: Tom said. 'He cane in through the window' would not normally be reported Tom said he had come in through the window as this might imply that Tom himself had come in this way; but if we use a noun there can be no confusion:

Tom said that the man/burglar/cat etc, had come in . . .

Pronoun changes may affect the verb:

He says. 'I know her' = He says he knows her.

He says, '! shall be there' = He says that he will be there. B this and these

this used in time expressions usually becomes that: He said, 'She is coming this week' =

He said that she was coming that week. Otherwise this and that used as adjectives usually change to the:

He said, 'I bought this pearl/these pearls for my mother' =

He said that he had bought the peart/pearls for his mother. this, these used as pronouns can become it, they/them:

He showed me two bullets. 'I found these embedded in the panelling,'

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he said =

He said he had found them embedded in the panelling.

He said, 'We will discuss this tomorrow' = He said that they would discuss it/the waiter the next day. this, these (adjectives or pronouns), used to indicate choice or to distinguish some things from others, can become the one(s) near him etc., or the statement can be reworded:

'I'll have this (one),' he said to me = He said he would have the one near him or He pointed to/touched/showed me the one he wanted.

314 Expressions of time and place in indirect speech

A Adverbs and adverbial phrases of time change as follows:

Direct

Indirect

today

that day

yesterday

the day before

the day before yesterday

two days before

tomorrow

the next day/the following day

the day after tomorrow

in two days' time

next week/year etc.

the following week/year etc.

last week/year etc.

the previous week/year etc.

a year etc. ago

a year before/the previous year

'I saw her the day before yesterday,' he said = He said he'd seen her two days before. 'I'll do it tomorrow,' he promised = He promised that he would do it the next day.

'I'm starting the day after tomorrow, mother.' he said = He told his mother that he was starting in two days' time.

She said, 'My father died a year ago' = She said that her father had died a year before/the previous year.

BBut if the speech is made and reported on the same day these time changes are not necessary:

At breakfast this morning he said. ‘I’ll be very busy today' = At breakfast this morning he said that he would be very busy today.

CLogical adjustments are of course necessary if a speech is reported one/two days after it is made. On Monday Jack said to Tom:

I'm leaving the day after tomorrow.

If Tom reports this speech on the next day (Tuesday) he will probably say:

Jack said he was leaving tomorrow.

If he reports it on Wednesday, he will probably say: Jack said he was leaving today.

D here can become there but only when it is clear what place is meant:

At the station he said, ‘I’ll be here again tomorrow' = He said that he 'd be there again the next day.

Usually here has to be replaced by some phrase:

She said, 'You can sit here, Tom' = She told Tom that he could sit beside her etc. But He said, 'Come here, boys' would normally be reported:

He called the boys.

315 Infinitive and gerund constructions in indirect speech

Aagree/refuse/offer/promise/threaten + infinitive can sometimes be used instead of say (that):

ANN: Would you wait half an hour? TOM: All right = Tom agreed to wait or Tom said he would wait.

ANN: Would you lend me another £50?

TOM: No. I won't lend you any more money = Tom refused to lend her any more money or Tom said thai he wouldn't lend etc.

PAUL: I'll help you if you like, Ann = Paul offered to help her or

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Paul said that he'd help her. (See also shall I?, 318.)

ANN: I'll pay you back next week. Really I will. = Ann promised to pay him back the following week or

Ann said that she would pay him back or

Ann assured him that she would pay him back.

KIDNAPPERS: If you don't pay the ransom at once we'll kill your daughter = The kidnappers threatened to kill his daughter if he didn 't Ray the ransom at once or The kidnappers said that they would kill etc:

(For object + infinitive constructions, see 320.)

Baccuse . . . of/admit/apologize for/deny/insist on + gerund can sometimes be used instead of say (that):

TOM took the money!' might be reported

He accused me of taking the money. 'I stole/didn't steal it' might be reported I admitted/denied stealing it.

'I'm sorry I'm late,' he said might be reported He apologized for being late or

He said,he was sorry he was tale. BILL: Let me pay/or myself.

TOM: Certainly not! I'll pay! might be reported Tom insisted on paying.

316 say, tell and alternative introductory verbs

Asay and tell with direct speech

1say can introduce a statement or follow it:

Tom said, 'I've just heard the news' or 'I've just heard the news,' Tom said. Inversion of say and noun subject is possible when say follows the

statement:

'I've just heard the news,' said Tom. say + to + person addressed is possible, but this phrase must follow the direct statement; it cannot introduce it:

'I'm leaving at once,' Tom said to me. Inversion is not possible here.

2tell requires the person addressed:

Tell me. He told us. I'll tell Tom. except with tell lies/stories/the truth, when the person addressed need not be mentioned:

He told (me) lies. I'll tell (you) a story. tell used with direct speech must be placed after the

direct statement:

'I'm leaving at once,' Tom told me. Inversion is not possible with tell.

Bsay and tell with indirect speech

Indirect statements are normally introduced by say, or tell + object. say 4- to + object is possible but much less usual than tell + object:

He said he'd just heard the news.

He told me that he'd just heard the news.

Note also tell . . . how/about:

He told us how he had crossed the mountains. He told us about crossing the mountains.

He told us about his journeys.

(For say and tell with indirect commands, see 320-1.)

Other useful verbs are:

add*

complain*

point out

admit*

deny*

promise*

answer*

explain*

protest*

argue*

grumble*

remark*

assure + object

object*

remind + object

boast*

observe*

reply*

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These can be used with direct or indirect speech. With direct speech they follow direct statements;

'It won't cost more,' Tom assured us.

Starred verbs can be inverted, provided the subject is a noun: 'But it will take longer,' Bill objected/objected Bill.

'It'll cost too much,' Jack grumbled/grumbled Jack. They can all introduce indirect statements. that should be placed after the verb:

Tom assured us that it wauldn 't cost more. But Bill objected/pointed out that it would take longer.

D murmur, mutter, shout, stammer, whisper can precede or follow direct statements or questions. With noun subjects the verb can be inverted as shown above:

'You're late,' whispered Tom/Tom whispered.

They can introduce indirect statements, that is usually necessary:

Tom whispered that we were late.

There are, of course, a lot of other verbs describing the voice or the tone of voice, e.g. bark, growl, roar, scream, shriek, snarl, sneer, yell. But these are more common with direct than indirect speech.

317Questions in indirect speech

Direct question: He said, 'Where is she going?' Indirect question: He asked where she was going.

When we turn direct questions into indirect speech, the following changes are necessary. Tenses, pronouns and possessive adjectives, and adverbs of time and place change as in statements.

The interrogative form of the verb changes to the affirmative form. The question mark (?) is therefore omitted in indirect questions:

He said, 'Where does she live?' = He asked where she lived.

With affirmative verb questions (see 55) this change is obviously not necessary:

'Who lives next door?' he said = He asked who lived next door. 'What happened?' she said = She asked what had happened.

If the introductory verb is .say, it must be changed to avert of inquiry, e.g. ask, inquire, wonder, want to know etc.:

He said, 'Where is the station?' = He asked where the station was.

ask, inquire, wonder can also be used in direct speech. They are then usually placed at the end of the sentence:

'Where is the station?' he inquired.

C ask can be followed by the person addressed (indirect object): Heasked, 'What have you got in your bag?' =

He asked (me) what I had got in my bag. But inquire, wonder, want to know cannot take an indirect object, so if we wish to report a question where the person addressed is mentioned, we must use ask:

He said. 'Mary, when is the next train?' =

He asked Mary when the next train was. If we use inquire, wonder or want to know we must omit Mary.

D If the direct question begins with a question word (when, where, who, how, why etc.) the question word is repeated in the indirect question:

Hesaid, 'Why didn't you put on the brake?' =

He asked (her) why she hadn 'f put on the brake. She said, 'What do you want?' =

She asked (them) what they wanted.

E If there is no question word, if or whether must be used:

7s anyone there?' he asked = He asked if/whether anyone was there. 1 Normally we can use either if and whether, if is the more usual: 'Do you know Bill?' he said =

He asked if/whether I knew Bill.

'Did you see the accident?' the policeman asked =

The policeman asked if/whether I had seen the accident. 2 whether can emphasize that a choice has to be made:

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'Do you want to go by air or sea?' the travel agent asked = The travel agent asked whether I wanted to go by air or by sea. Note whether or not:

'Do you want to insure your luggage or not?' he asked == He asked whether or not I wanted to insure my luggage or He asked if I wanted to insure my luggage or not.

3 whether + infinitive is possible after wonder, want to know: 'Shall/Should 1wait for them or go on?' he wondered =

He wondered whether to wait for them or go on or

He wondered whether he should wait for them or go on. inquire + whether + infinitive is possible but less usual. (For whether + infinitive, see also 242 B.)

4 whether is neater if the question contains a conditional clause as otherwise there would be two ifs:

'If you get the job will you move to York?' Bill asked = Bill asked whether, if I got the job, I'd move to York.

Questions beginning shall I/we? in indirect speech Questions beginning shall I/we? can be of four kinds.

Speculations or requests for information about a future event:

'Shall I ever see them again?' he wondered. 'When shall I know the result of the test?' she asked.

These follow the ordinary rule about shall/will. Speculations are usually introduced by wonder:

He wondered if he would ever see them again. She asked when she would know the result of the test.

Requests for instructions or advice:

'What shall I do with it?' = 'Tell me what to do with it.' These are expressed in indirect speech by ask, inquire etc., with should or the be + infinitive construction. Requests for advice are normally reported by should:

'Shall we post it. sir?' he said =

He asked the customer if they were to post/if they should post if. 'What shall I say, mother?' she said =

She asked her mother what she should say. (request for advice) When a choice is required we normally use whether in indirect speech. whether + infinitive is sometimes possible (see also 317 E):

'Shall I lock the car or leave it unlocked?' he said =

He asked whether he should/was to lock the car or leave it unlocked or He asked whether to lock the car etc.

Offers:

'Shall I bring you some tea?' could be reported He offered to bring me some tea.

Note that 'Wouldyou like me to bring you some tea?' and 'I'll bnngyou some tea if you like' could also be reported by offer.

Suggestions:

'Shall we meet at the theatre?' could be reported He suggested meeting at the theatre. Questions beginning will you/would you/could you?

These may be ordinary questions, but may also be requests, invitations, or, very occasionally, commands (see 284. 286, 320):

He said. 'Will you be there tomorrow?' (ordinary question) = He asked if she would be there the next day.

'Will you stand still!'he shouted = He shouted at me to standstill''^! He told/ordered me to stand still.

'Wouldyou like to live in New York?' he asked = He asked if I would tike to live in New York.

'Wilt/Would you file these letters, please?' he said = He asked/told me to/lie the Setters.

'Would you like a lift?' said Ann = Ann offered me a lift. 'Would you like to come round/Could yw come round for a drink?'

he said =

He invited me (to come) round for a drink. 'Could you live on £25 a week?' he asked = He asked if I could live on £25 a week. 'Could/Would you give me a hand?' she said =

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She asked us to give her a hand.

'Could/Would you show me the photos?' she said =

She asked me to show her the photos or She asked to see the photos. (For can/could/may/might + I/we?, see 283. For requests for permission, see 131.) 320 Commands, requests, advice in indirect speech

Direct command: He said, 'Lie down, Tom.' Indirect command: He told Tom to He down.

Indirect commands, requests, advice are usually expressed by a verb of comraand/request/advice + object + infinitive (== the object -i- infinitive construction).

A The following verbs can be used: advise, ask, beg, command, encourage, entreat, forbid, implore, invite, order, recommend, remind, request, tell, urge, warn.

(Note that say is not included in this list. For indirect commands/ requests reported by say, see 321.)

Hesaid. 'Get your coat, Tom!' = He told Tom to get his coat. 'You had better hurry, Bill!' she said = She advised Bill to hurry.

B Negative commands, requests etc. are usually reported by not •+• infinitive:

'Don't swim out too far, boys,' I said =

I warned/told the boys not to swim out too far. forbid can also be used for prohibitions, but is more common in the passive than in the active.

C Verbs in A above require object + infinitive, i.e. they must be followed directly by the person addressed without preposition (see also 89). The person addressed is often not mentioned in direct commands, requests

etc.: He said, 'Go away!' When reporting such commands/requests therefore we must add a noun

or pronoun:

He told me/him/her/us/them/the children to go away. ask diners from the other verbs in A in that it can also be followed directly by the infinitive of certain verbs, e.g. see, speak to, talk to: He said. 'Could I see Tom, please?' =

He asked to see Tom. (See also 283.) But this is quite different from the ask + object + infinitive type of request.

Both ask and beg can be followed by the passive infinitive:

'Do. please, send me to a warm climate,' he asked/begged = He asked/begged us to send him to a warm climate or He asked/begged to be sent to a warm climate.

Examples of indirect commands, requests, advice Note that direct commands are usually expressed by the imperative, but that requests and advice can be expressed in a variety of

ways (see 283-7):

'If I were you, I'd slop taking tranquillizers,' I said =

I advised him to stop taking tranquillizers. (See 311 D.)

'Why don't you take off your coat?'he said =

He advised me to take off my coat. (See also 287.)

' Would/Could you show me your passport, please?' he said =

He asked me to show him my passport or

He asked me for/He asked to see my passport.

'You might post some letters for me,' said my boss =

My boss asked me to post some letters for him.

'If you 'd just sign the register,' said the receptionist =

The receptionist asked him to sign the register.

'Do sit down.' said my hostess =-

My hostess asked/invited me to sit down.

'Please, please don't take any risks,' said his wife =

His wife begged/implored him not to take any risks.

'Forget all about this you »g man,' said her parents: 'don't see him '

again or answer his

letters' =

Her parents ordered her to forget all about the young man and told

her not to see him again or answer his letters or

She was ordered to forget all about the young man and forbidden to ._

see him again or

answer his tetters, (passive construction)

'Don't forget to order the wine.' said Mrs Pitt =

Mrs Pitt reminded her husband to order the wine.

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'Try again,' said Ann's friends encouragingly = Ann's friends encouraged her to fry again. 'Go on, apply for the job,'said Jack =

Jack urged/encouraged me to apply for the job.

' You had better not leave your car unlocked,' said my friends;

'there's been a lot of stealing from cars' = ' My friends warned me not to leave my car unlocked as there had been a lot of stealing from cars.

will you . . . sentences are normally treated as requests and reported by ask:

'Will all persons not travelling please go ashore,' he said = He asked at! persons not travelling to go ashore. But if a will you sentence is spoken sharply or irritably, and the ' please is omitted, it might be reported by tell or order;

'Will you be quiet!/Be quiet, will you!' he said = He told/ordered us to be quiet.

321Other ways of expressing indirect commands

A say/tell + subject + be + infinitive:

He said/told me that I was to wait. This is a possible alternative to the tell + infinitive construction, so that:

He said, 'Don't open the door' could be reported He told me not to open the door or

fie said that I wasn 't to open the door. The be + infinitive construction is particularly useful in the following cases:

1 When the command is introduced by a verb in the present tense:

He says, 'Meet me at the station' = He says that we are to meet him at the station. (He tells us to meet him would be much less likely.)

2 When the command is preceded by a clause (usually of time or condition):

He said, 'If she leaves the house follow her' could be reported He said that if she left the house I was to follow her. He told me to follow her if she left the house would be equally possible here but note that if we use the tell + infinitive construction we must change the order of the sentence so as to put the command first. Sometimes this would result in a rather confusing sentence. For example, the request If you see Ann tell her to ring me would become He told me to tell Ann to ring him if I saw her. Such requests can only be reported by the be + infinitive construction:

He said that if I saw Ann I was to tell her to ring him. B say/tell (+ that) + subject + should

1 say or tell with a should construction normally indicates advice rather than command: He said, 'If your brakes are bad don't drive so fast' =

He said/told me that if my brakes were bad I shouldn 't drive so fast or

He advised me not to drive so fast if my brakes were bad. (Note change of order here, as with tell + infinitive above.)

2 Advice can also be expressed by advise, recommend and urge + that. . . should. This is particularly useful in the passive (see 302 E):

'! advise cancelling the meeting.' he said s He advised that the meeting should be cancelled. 3 command and order can also be used with should or a passive infinitive;

'Evacuate the area!' ordered the superintendent =

The superintendent ordered that everyone should lease the area or ordered that the area should be evacuated or

ordered the area to be evacuated.

4 Note that when an indirect command is expressed by an object + infinitive construction, as in 320, there is normally the idea that the

person who is to obey the command is addressed directly. But when the command is expressed by the be + infinitive construction (A above) or by a should construction (B3 above) the recipient of the command need not necessarily be addressed directly. The command may be conveyed to him by a third person.

322let's, let us, let him/them in indirect speech

let's

let's usually expresses a suggestion and is reported by suggest in

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indirect speech:

He said, 'Let's leave the case at the station' would be reported:

He suggested leaving the case at the station or He suggested that they/we should leave the case at the station.

(See 289 for constructions with suggest.) He said, 'Let's stop now and finish it later' would be reported:

He suggested stopping then and finishing it later or He suggested that they/we should stop then and finish it later.

Similarly in the negative:

He said, 'Let's not say anything about it till we hear the facts' = He suggested not saying anything/saying nothing about it till they heard the facts or He suggested that they shouldn 't say anything till they heard the facts.

But let's not used alone in answer to an affirmative suggestion is often reported by some phrase such as opposed the idea/was against it/objected. So that we could report:

'Let's sell the house,' said Tom. 'Lei's not,' said Ann by Tom suggested selling the house hut Ann was against it.

(For other suggestion forms, see 289.) ;. let's/let us sometimes expresses a call to action. It is then usually

reported by urge/advise + object + infinitive (see also 320):

The strike leader said, 'Let's show the bosses that we are united' = The strike leader urged the workers to show the bosses that they were united.

323let him/them

In theory let him/them expresses a command. But very often the speaker has no authority over the person who is to obey the command;

7('s not my business,' said the postman. 'Let the government do something about it.'

Here, the speaker is not issuing a command but expressing an obligation. Sentences of this type are therefore normally reported by ought/should:

He said that if wasn 't his business and that the government ought to/should do something about it.

2 Sometimes, however, let him/them does express a command. It is then usually reported by say + be + infinitive (see 321):

'Let the boys clear up this mess,' said the headmaster -= The headmaster said that the boys were to clear up the mess. 'Let the guards'be armed,' he ordered = He ordered that the guards should be armed.

3 Sometimes let him/them is more a suggestion than a command. In such cases it is usually reported by suggest, or say + should (see 289):

She said, 'Let them go to their consul. He 'II be able to help them' = She suggested their/them going to their consul etc. or She suggested that they should go to their consul or She said that they should go to their consul.

4 let him/them can also indicate the speaker's indifference: 'The neighbours will complain,' said Ann.

'Let them (complain),' said Tom = Tom expressed indifference or Tom said he didn't mind (if they complained).

C let there be

Here the speaker could be ordering, advising, urging or begging:

'Let there be no reprisals,' said the widow of the murdered man = The widow urged/begged that there should be no reprisals.

D let is also an ordinary verb meaning allow/permit:

'Let him come with us, mother; I'll take care of him,' I said =

I asked my mother to let him come with us and promised to take care of him.

323 Exclamations and yes and no

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A Exclamations usually become statements in indirect speech. The exclamation mark disappears.

1 Exclamations beginning What <a). . . or How ... can be reported

(a) by exclaim/say that:

He said, 'What a dreadful idea!' or 'How dreadful.'' = He exclaimed that it was a dreadful idea/was dreadful

or (b) by give an exclamation of delight/disgust/horror/relief/ surprise etc-

Alternatively, if the exclamation is followed by an action we can use the construction (c) with an exclamation of delight/disgust etc. +

he/she etc. + verb.

2 Other types of exclamation, such as Good! Marvellous! Splendid! Heavens! Oh! Ugh! etc. can be reported as in (b) or (c) above:

'Good!' he exclaimed =

He gave an exclamation of pleasure/satisfaction.

' Ugh!' she exclaimed, and turned the programme off =

With an exclamation of disgust she turned the programme off.

Note also:

He said, 'Thank you!' = He thanked me. ;' He said. 'Curse this fog.'' = He cursed the fog. He said. 'Good luck!' = He wished me luck.

He said. 'Happy Christmas'.' = He wished me a happy Christmas. He said, 'Congratulations9' = He congratulated me.

He said, 'Liar!' = He called me a liar. He said, 'Damn!'etc. = He swore.

The notice said: WELCOME TO WALES.' = '• The notice welcomed visitors to Wales. ri

yes and no are expressed in indirect speech by subject + appropriate ' auxiliary verb:

He said, 'Can you swim?'and I said'No' = He asked (me) if I could swim and I said I couldn't. Hesaid, 'Will you have time to do it?' and I said 'Yes' = He asked if I would have time to do it and I said that I would.

324Indirect speech: mixed types

Direct speech may consist of statement + question, question + command, command + statement, or all three together.

Normally each requires its own introductory verb:

'I don't know the way. Do you?' he asked .= ; He said he didn't know the way and asked her if she did/if she knew it.

'Someone's coming,' he said. 'Get behind the screen' =

He said that someone was coming and told me to get behind the screen.

'I'm going shopping. Can I get you anything?' she said = '' She said she was going shopping and asked if she could get me ; anything.

'I can hardly hear the radio,' he said. 'Could you turn it up?' =

He said he could hardly hear the radio and asked her to turn it up.

But sometimes, when the iast clause is a statement which helps to explain the first, we can use as instead of a second introductory verb:

'You'd better wear a coat. it's very cold out.'he said =. He advised me to wear a coat as it was very cold out. 'You'd better not walk across the park alone. People have been

mugged there,' he said =

He warned her not to walk across the park alone as people had been mugged there. Sometimes the second introductory verb can be a participle:

'Please, please, don't drink too much! Remember thatyou'U have to drive home,' she said = She begged him not to drink too much, reminding him that he 'd have to drive home.

'Let's shop on Friday. The supermarket will be very crowded on Saturday,' she said =

She suggested shopping on Friday, pointing out that the supermarket would be very crowded on Saturday. (as could be used in both these examples.)

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325 must and needn't

Amust used for deductions, permanent commands/prohibitions and to express intention remains unchanged. (For must, expressing advice, see 287 A.)

1 Deductions:

She said, 'I'm always running into him; he must live near here!' a She said that. . . he must live in the area.

2 Permanent command:

He said, 'This door must be kept locked' =-He said that the door must be kept locked. 3 must used casually to express intention:

He said, ' We must have a party to celebrate this' = He said that they must have a party to celebrate it.

Bmust used for obligation can remain unchanged. Alternatively it can be reported by would

have to or had to.

1 I/we must reported by would have to

would have to is used when the obligation depends on some future action, or when the fulfilment of the obligation appears remote or uncertain, i.e. when must is clearly replaceable by will have to:

'If the floods get worse we must (will have to) leave the house,' he said =

If e said that if the floods got worse they would have to leave the house.

'When it stops snowing we must start digging ourselves out,' I said =

I said that when it stopped snowing we would have to start digging ourselves out.

'We must mend the roof properly next year,' he said =

He said that they would have to mend the roof properly the following year.

7 have just received a letter,' he said. 'I must go home' =

He said that he had just received a letter and would have to go home- (But had to would be more usual here if he went at once, i.e. had to'would imply that he went at once.)

2 I/we must reported by had to

had to is the usual form for obligations where times for fulfilment have been fixed, or plans made, or when the obligation is fulfilled fairly promptly, or at least by the time the speech is reported:

He said, 'I must wash my hands' (and presumably did so) = He said that he had to wash his hands.

Tom said, 'I must be there by nine tomorrow' = { Tom said that he had to be there by nine the next day. ^would have to would be possible here also but would imply that the ^obligation was self-imposed and that no outside authority was involved, ; had to could express either an outside authority (i.e. that someone had ; told him to be there) or a self-imposed obligation. HAH difficulties about had to/would have to can of course be avoided ,:jby keeping must unchanged. In both the above examples must could '''have been used instead of had to/would have to.

you/he/they must is reported similarly: He said. 'You must start at once' =

He said that she must/had to/would have to start at once. But note that would have to removes the idea of the speaker's authority:

Tom said. 'I/you want to stay on here you must work harder' =

Twn said that if she wanted to stay on she must/would have to work harder.

must implies that Tom himself insists on her working harder, would have to merely implies that this will be necessary.

must I/you/he? can change similarly but as must in the interrogative usually concerns the present or immediate future it usually becomes had to:

'Must you go so soon?' I said = I asked him if he had to go so soon. gfaust not

must not usually remains unchanged, you/he must not remains

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.pichanged or is expressed as a negative command (see 320-1):

He said, 'You mustn't tell anyone' = f:- He said that she mustn 't ell/wasn 't to tell anyone

or

He told her not to tell anyone. ',, needn't

needn't can remain unchanged and usually does. Alternatively it can i,change to didn't have to/wouldn't have to just as must changes to

•had to/would have to:

He said. 'You needn't wait' = He said that I needn't wait.

I said, 'If you can lend me the money I needn 't go to the bank = i; / said that if he could lend me the money I needn 't/wouldn 't have to

go to the bank.

He said, '1 needn't be in the office till ten tomorrow morning' •=

He said that he needn't/didn't have to be in the office till ten the next ! morning. "need I/you/he? behaves exactly in the same ways as must I/you/he? ; i.e. it normally becomes had to:

'Need I finish my pudding?' asked the small boy = ^ The small boy asked if he had to finish his pudding.

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32 Conjunctions

326Co-ordinating conjunctions: and, but, both . . . and, or, either ... or, neither . . . nor, not only . .

. but also

These join pairs of nouns/adjectives/adverbs/verbs/phrases/clauses: He plays squash and rugby.

I make the payments and keep the accounts. He works quickly and/but accurately.

He is small but strong. She is intelligent but lazy. We came in first but (we) didn't win the race.

Both men and women were drafted into the army. Ring Tom or Bill. She doesn 't smoke or drink. He can't (either) read or write.

You can (either) walk up or take the cable car. He can neither read nor write.

Not only men but also women were chosen.

327besides, however, nevertheless, otherwise, so, therefore, still, yet, though

These adverbs/conjunctions can join clauses or sentences and are then often known as 'conjuncts'. But they can also, with the exception of nevertheless and therefore (conjunctions), be used in other ways and sometimes as other parts of speech. Their position will vary according to how they are used-

A besides (preposition) means 'in addition to'. It precedes a noun/pronoun/gerund: Besides doing the cooking I look after the garden. besides (adverb) means 'in addition'. It usually precedes the clause it introduces, but can follow it:

I can't go now; I'm too busy. Besides, my passport is out of date. moreover could replace besides here in more formal English. anyway or in any case could be used here in more informal English:

Anyway, my passport's out of date.

B however (adverb of degree, see 41) precedes its adjective/adverb:

You couldn't earn much, however hard you worked. however (conjunction) usually means 'but'. It can precede or follow its clause or come after the first word or phrase:

I'll offer it to Tom. However, he may not want it or

He may 'not want it however or Tom, however, may not want it or If, however, he doesn't want it. . .

' But when two contrasting statements are mentioned, however can t; mean'but/nevertheless/all the same':

They hadn 't trained hard, but/however/nevertheless/all the same they won or they won, however/nevertheless/all the same, (See also 329.)

(Video) CAN YOU PLEASE SHOW ME THE WAY

.• otherwise (adverb) usually comes after the verb:

It must be used in a well-ventilated room. Used otherwise it could be harmful. otherwise (conjunction) means 'if not/or else':

We must be early; otherwise we won't get a seat. or could also be used here in colloquial English;

We must be early or (else) see won't get a seat.

so (adverb of degree) precedes its adjective/adverb:

I was so hot that. . . They ran so fast that. . . so (conjunction) precedes its clause: Our cases were heavy, so we look a taxi.

therefore (conjunction) can be used instead of so in formal English. It can come at the beginning of the clause or after the first word or phrase; or before the main verb:

There is fog at Heathrow; the plane, therefore, has been diverted/the plane has therefore been diverted/therefore the plane has been diverted.

••• still and yet can be adverbs of time (see 37):

The children are still up. They haven't had supper yet. '•' still and yet (conjunctions) come at the beginning of the clauses they introduce.

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still (conjunction) means 'admitting that/nevertheless'. yet (conjunction) means 'in spite of that/all the same/nevertheless'. You aren 't rich; still, you could do something to help him. They are ugly and expensive; yet people buy them.

though/although normally introduce clauses of concession (see 340):

Though/Although they're expensive, people buy them. though (but not although) can also be used to link two main clauses. though used in this way means 'but' or 'yet' and is placed sometimes at the beginning but more often at the end of its clause:

He says he 'II pay, though I don't think he will or He says he 'II pay; I don 'f think he will, though.

328Subordinating conjunctions: if, that, though/although, unless, when etc.

Subordinating conjunctions introduce subordinate adverb or noun clauses and are dealt with in the chapters on the different types of clause.

See chapter 21 for conditional clauses, chapter 33 for purpose clauses chapter 34 for adverb clauses of reason, result, concession, comparison and time, and chapter 35 for noun clauses.

Some conjunctions have more than one meaning and may introduce more than one type of clause.

Pairs and groups of conjunctions which are sometimes confused with each other or with other parts of speech are dealt with below.

329 though/although and in spite of (preposition phrase), despite (preposition)

Two opposing or contrasting statements, such as He had no qualifications and He got the job, could be combined as follows:

A With but, however or nevertheless as shown in 327 above: He had no qualifications but he got the job.

He had no qualifications; however he got the Job/he got the job, however.

He had no qualifications; nevertheless he got the job. B With though/although:

He got the job although he had no qualifications. Although he had no qualifications he got the job.

C With in spite of/despite + noun/pronoun/gerund:

In spite of'having no qualifications he got the job. He got the job in spite of having no qualifications.

despite = in spite of. It is chiefly used in newspapers and in formal English: Despite the severe weather conditions all the cars completed the

course.

D Note that though/although requires subject + verb: Although it was windy . . .

and that in spite of/despite requires noun/pronoun or gerund: In spite a/the wind . . .

Some more examples:

Although it smelt horrible . . . = In spite of the horrible smell. . . Although it was dangerous . . .

= In spite of the danger . . . Though he was inexperienced . . . = In spite of his inexperience/his being inexperienced . . .

330for and because

These conjunctions have nearly the same meaning and very often either can be used. It is, however, safer to use because, as a clause introduced by for (which we will call a 'forclause') has a more restricted use than a clause introduced by because:

1 A for-clause cannot precede the verb which it explains: Because it was wet he took a taxi. (for is not possible.)

2 A for-clause cannot be preceded by not, but or any conjunction:

He stole, not because he wanted the money but because he liked stealing. (for not possible)

3 A for-clause cannot be used in answer to a question:

Why did you do it? ~ I did it because I was angry. (for not possible)

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4 A for-clause cannot be a mere repetition of what has been already stated, but always includes some new piece of information:

He spoke in French. She was angry because he had spoken in

French, (for is not possible.) But She was angry, for she didn 't know French. (Here for is correct;

because is also possible.)

The reason for these restrictions is that a for-clause does not tell us why a certain action was performed, buE merely presents a piece of additional information which helps to explain it. Some examples of for-clauses:

The days wereshort, for it was now December. He took the food eagerly, for he had eaten nothing since dawn. When I saw her in the river I was frightenedFor at that point the currents were dangerous.

In speech a short pause is usually made before a for-clause and in written English this place is usually marked by a comma, and sometimes, as in the last example above, by a full stop. because could be used in the above sentences also, though for is better.

331 when, while, as used to express time

A when is used, with simple tenses:

1 When one action occurs at the same time as another or in the span of another:

When it is wet the buses are crowded.

When we lived in town we often went to the theatre.

2 When one action follows another:

When she pressed the button the lift stopped.

Bas is used:

When the second action occurs before the first is finished:

As / left the house I remembered the key.

This implies that I remembered the key before I had completed the action of leaving the house; I was probabiy still in the doorway. While I was leaving would have the same meaning here, but When I left would give the impression that the act of leaving was complete and the door shut behind me.

2 For parallel actions: He sang as he worked.

3 For parallel development:

As the sun rose the fog dispersed.

As it grew darker if became colder = The darker it grew, the colder it became. As she came to know him better she relied on him more.

As he became more competent he was given more interesting work.

If we used when here we would lose all idea of simultaneous progression or development. 4 To mean while (= during the time that):

As he stood there he saw two men enter the bar.

But there is no particular advantage in using as here, and while is safer.

332 as meaning when/while or because/since

A Restricted use of as (= when/while)

as here is chiefly used with verbs indicating action or development. It is not normally used with the type of verb listed in 168, except when there is an idea of development, as in B3 above. Nor is it normally used with verbs such as live, stay, remain.

B as used with the above verbs/types of verb normally means because/since;

As he was tired . . . = Because he was tired . . .

As he knew her well. . . = Because he knew her well. . .

As it contains alcohol. . . = Since/Because it contains alcohol. . .

As he lives near here . . . = Since/Because he lives . . .

C With most verbs, as can be used with either meaning:

As/While he shaved he thought about the coming interview.

As/Because he shaved with a blunt razor he didn't make a very good job of it.

If in doubt here, students should use while or because.

D as + noun can mean either when/while or because/since:

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As a student he had known great poverty = When he was a student he had known great poverty.

As a student he gets/got in for half price = Because he is/was a student he gets/got in . . .

As a married man, he has to think of his family = Because/Since he is a married man . . .

as meaning when/while here is usually followed by a perfect tense. as meaning because/since can be followed by any tense.

as, when, while used to mean although, but, seeing that

as can mean though/although but only in the combination adjective + as + subject + to be/to seem/to appear:

Tired as he was he offered to carry her = Though he was tired he offered to carry her. Strong as he was, he couldn't lift it.

while can mean but and is used to emphasize a contrast:

'At sea' means 'on a ship', while 'at the sea' means 'at the seaside'. Some people waste food while others haven't enough.

while can also mean although and is then usually placed at the beginning of a sentence:

While I sympathize with your point of view I cannot accept it.

when can mean seeing that/although. It is therefore very similar to while, but is chiefly used to introduce a statement which makes another action seem unreasonable. It is often, though not necessarily, used with a question:

How can you expect your children to be truthful when you yourself tell lies? It's not fair to expect her to do all the cooking when she has had no training or experience.

Do not confuse when and if

When he comes implies that we are sure he will come. If he comes implies that we don't know whether he will come or not. (For if in conditional sentences, see chapter 21.)

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33

Purpose

334

Purpose is normally expressed by the infinitive

Purpose can be expressed by:

A The infinitive alone:

He went to France to learn French. They stopped to ask the way. When there is a personal

object of the main verb, the infinitive may refer to this and not to the subject:

He sen! Tom to the shop Co buy bread. (Tom was to buy the bread.)

E

in order or so as + infinitive

in order + infinitive can imply either that the subject wants to perform the action or that he wants it to happen.

so as + infinitive implies only that the subject wants the action to happen, in order is, therefore, the more generally useful,

in order or so as are used:

1With a negative infinitive to express a negative purpose: He left his gun outside in order/so as not to frighten us.

2With to be and to have:

She left work early in order/so as to be at home when he arrived. She gave up work in order/so as to have more time with the children.

3 When the purpose is less immediate:

He is studying mathematics in order/so as to qualify/or a better job. She learnt typing in order to help her husband with his work.

4Sometimes in longer sentences, to emphasize that the infinitive indicates purpose: He was accused of misrepresenting the facts in order/so as to make

the scheme seem feasible.

He took much more trouble over the figures than he usually did in

order/so as to show his new boss what a careful worker he was. (But in order/so as is not essential and is often omitted.) When the infinitive of purpose precedes the main verb, in order/so as may be placed first:

In order/So as to show his boss what a careful worker he was, he

took extra trouble over the figures. (But here also in order/so as may be omitted.)

5When there is a personal object but we want the infinitive to refer unambiguously to the subject:

He sent his sons to a boarding school in order/so as to have some peace. (He, not his sons, was going to have some peace.) Compare with:

He sent his sons to a boarding school to team to live in a community.

(Not he but his sons were to learn to live in a community.) But this in order/so as construction is not very common. It is more usual to say:

He sent his sons to a boarding school because he wanted to have some peace.

in order (but not so as), used to emphasize that the subject really had this purpose in mind:

He bought diamonds when he was in Amsterdam! ~ That wasn't surprising. He went to Amsterdam in order to buy diamonds, (not for any other purpose)

We could also, however, express^this idea by stressing the first verb and omitting in order: He 'went to Amsterdam to buy diamonds. Infinitive + noun + preposition:

/ want a case to keep my records in.

I need a corkscrew to open this bottle with. Note that here we are talking about a particular purpose. For a general purpose we use for + gerund:

This is a case for keeping records in.

A corkscrew is a tool for opening bottles.

335Infinitives of purpose after go and come

It is not normal to use an infinitive of purpose after the imperative or infinitive of go and come. Instead of Go to find Bill we normally say Go and find Bill; and instead of Come to talk to Ann

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we say Come and talk to Ann; i.e. instead of an imperative + an infinitive of purpose we use two imperatives Joined by and. And instead of:

I must go to help my mother and I'll come to check the accounts we normally say:

I must go and help my mother and I'll come and check the accounts. i.e. instead of an infinitive + an infinitive of purpose we use two infinitives joined by and (see 246 I).

But when go and come are used as gerunds or in any present or past tense they take the ordinary infinitive of purpose:

I'm thinking of going to look for mushrooms. I went to help my mother.

I've come to check the accounts.

I didn 't come to talk to Bill; I came to talk to you.

336Clauses of purpose

Clauses are necessary when the person to whom the purpose refers is different from the subject of the main clause, or when the original subject is stated again:

Ships carry lifeboats so that the crew can escape if the ship sinks. This knife has a cork handle so that if will float if it falls overboard.

A Purpose clauses are usually expressed by so that + will/would or can/could + infinitive. can/could is used here to mean will/would be able to:

They make £10 notes a different size from £5 notes so that blind people can (= wil! be able to) tell the difference between them. They wrote the notices in several languages so that foreign tourists could (= would be able to) understand them. can and will are used when the main verb is in a present, present perfect or future tense; could and would are used when the main verb is in a past tense. See the examples above and also:

/ light/am lighting/have lit/will light the fire so that the house will be warm when they return. I have given/will give him a key so that he can get into the house whenever he likes.

I pinned the note to his pillow so that he would be sure to see it. There were telephone points every kilometre so that drivers whose cars had broken down would be able to/could summon help. If that is omitted from purpose clauses with can/could, the idea of purpose may disappear. The sentence He took my shoes so that I couldn't leave the house would normally mean 'He took my shoes to prevent my leaving etc.' but He took my shoes, so I couldn 't leave the house would normally mean 'He took my shoes; therefore I wasn't able to leave'.

B Purpose clauses can also be formed by so that/in order that/that + may/might or shall/should + infinitive. These are merely more formal constructions than those shown in A above. There is no difference in meaning.

Note that so that can be followed by will/can/may/shall or their past forms, while in order that or that are limited to may/shall or their past forms.

that used alone is rarely found except in very dramatic speech or writing, or in poetry.

The rules about sequences of tenses are the same as those shown above. The following are very formal:

We carved their names on the stone so that/in order that future generations should/might know what they had done. These men risk their lives so that/in order that we may live more safely.

may in the present tense is much more comman than shall, which is rarely used. In the past tense either might or should can be used. The student should know the above forms but should not normally need to use them, as for all ordinary purposes so that + can/could or will/would should be quite sufficient.

C Negative purpose clauses are made by putting the auxiliary verb (usually will/would or should) into the negative:

He wrote his diary in code so that his wife wouldn 't be able to read it-He changed his name so that his new friends wouldn Vshouidn 't know that he had once been accused of murder.

Criminals usually telephone from public telephone boxes so that the police won't be able to trace the call.

Negative purpose clauses can, however, usually be replaced bv to prevent + noun/pronoun + gerund, or to avoid + gerund-

He dyed his beard so that we shouldn 't recognize him/to prevent us recognizing him/to avoid being recognized, (passive gerund) She always shopped in another village so that she

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wouldn 'i meet her own neighbours/to avoid meeting her own neighbours. These infinitive phrases are preferred to negative purpose clauses.

337 in case and lest

Ain case

in case + subject + verb can follow a statement or command:

I don't let him climb trees in case he tears his trousers. This first action is usually a preparation for, or a precaution against, the action in the if-clause, which is a possible future action.

in case + present tense normally has the meaning 'because this may happen/because perhaps this will happen' or 'for fear that this may happen'-

in case + past tense normally means 'because this might happen/because perhaps this would happen' or 'for fear that this would happen'.

Both present tense and past tense here can be replaced by should + infinitive. should used here would express greater improbability, but this construction is not very usual,

BTenses with in case

Main verb

Future

present tense or Present

+ in case +

.. _( ^

should + infinitive Present perfect J

Conditional

1

(

. ,

past tense or

Past tense

+ in case +

n .

,

should + infinitive

Past perfect

;

I'll make a cake in case someone drops in at the weekend.

I carry a spare wheel in case I have/should have a puncture.

I always keep candles in the house in case there is a power cut.

I always kept candies in the house in case there was a power cut. (See also 227.) lest means 'for fear that' and is followed by should:

He doesn't/didn't dare to leave the house lest someone should recognize him. lest is rarely found except in formal written English.

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34 Clauses of reason, result, concession, comparison, time

338 Clauses of reason and result/cause

Except for the type shown in A2 and A3 below, both these clauses can be introduced by as or because. But as is safer for clauses of reason (see A below) and because is safer for clauses of result/cause (see B).

AClauses of reason

1 Introduced by as/because/since;

We camped there as/because/since it was too dark to go on. As/Because/Since it was too dark to go on, we camped there.

2 'in view of the fact that' can be expressed by as/since/seeing that, but not because: As/Since/Seeing that you are here, you may as well give me a hand. As/Since/Seeing that Tom knows French, he 'd better do the talking.

3 Where as/since/seeing that refers to a statement previously made or understood, it is replaceable by if:

As/Since/Seeing that/If you don't like Bill, why did you invite him? Note the use of if so:

I hope Bill won't come. ~ Ifso (= If you hope he won't come), why did you invite him? For if + so/not, see 347.

BClauses of result/cause (see also 339) are introduced by because or as: The fuse blew because we had overloaded the circuit.

He was angry because we were late.

As it/rose hard that night there was ice everywhere next day. As the soup was very salty we were thirsty afterwards.

CThese combinations could also be expressed by two main clauses Joined by so: It was too dark to go on, so we camped there.

You are here, so you may as well give me a hand.

It froze hard that night, so there was ice everywhere next day. therefore can also be used. but is normal only in fairly formal sentences:

The Finnish delegate has not yet arrived. We are therefore postponing/We have therefore decided to postpone/Therefore we are postponing the meeting. (Notice possible positions of therefore.)

339 Clauses of result with such/so . . . that

Asuch is an adjective and is used before an adjective + noun:

They had such a fierce dog that no one dared to go near their house. He spoke for such a long time that people began to fall asleep.

Bso is an adverb and is used before adverbs and with adjectives which are not followed by their nouns:

The snow fell so fast that our footsteps were soon covered up. His speech went on for so long thai people began to fall asleep. Their dog was so fierce that no one dared come near it.

But such is never used before much and many. so so is used even when much and many are followed by nouns:

There was so much dust that we couldn't see what was happening. So many people

complained that they took the programme off.

C Note that such + a + adjective + noun is replaceable by so + adjective + a + noun, so that 'such a good man" is replaceable by 'so good a man'. This is only possible when a noun is preceded by a/an. It is not a very usual form but may be met in literature. Sometimes for emphasis so is placed at the beginning of the sentence. It is then followed by the inverted form of the verb (see 45):

So terrible was the storm that whole roofs were ripped off.

340Clauses of concession

These are introduced by although, though (see 327, 329), even though, even if, no matter, however (see 85) and sometimes by whatever, as is also possible, but only in the adjective + as + be construction.

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Although/Though/Even though/Even if you don't like him you can still be polite. No matter what you do, don't touch this switch.

However rich people are, they always seem anxious to make more money. However carefully you drive, you will probably have an accident eventually. Whatever you do, don't tell him that I told you this.

Patient as he was, he had no intention of waiting for three hours.

(though he was patient) may + infinitive can be used in hypothetical cases:

However frightened you may tie yourself, you must remain outwardly calm. may can also imply 'I accept the fact that':

But he's your brother! ~ He may be my brother but I don't trust him!

But may used in this way is part of another main clause, not a clause of concession. should + infinitive can be used after even if just as it can after if in conditional sentences, to express the idea that the action expressed by the infinitive is not very likely to take place;

Even if he should find out he won't do anything about it.

341 Clauses of comparison

A Comparisons with adjectives and finite verbs (see also 20-2);

It's darker today than it was yesterday.

He doesn'I Ray as much tax as we do/as us. He spends more than he earns.

Note that + adjective, a colloquial form:

Will it cost £1W? ~ No, it won't cost as much as (ail) that. It won't

be (alt) that expensive. (It won't be as expensive as that.) that + adjective is sometimes used colloquially to mean very.

B Comparisons with adverbs and finite verbs (see also 31-4):

He didn't play as well as we expected/as well as you (did). He sings more loudly than anyone I've ever heard/than anyone else (does). You work harder than he does/than him/than I did at your age.

CComparisons with adjectives and infinitives or gerunds

Often either can be used, but the infinitive is more usual for a particular action, and gerunds are more usual for genera! statements (see also E below):

It's sometimes as cheap to buy a new one as (it is) (to) repair the old one.

Buying a new one is sometimes as cheap as repairing the old one.

He found that lying on She beach was just as boring as sitting in his office or

He found lying on the beach just as boring as sitting etc. (The infinitive would be less usual here.)

He thinks it (is) safer to drive himself than (to) let me drive. He thinks that driving himself is safer than letting me drive. It will soon be more difficult to get a visa than it is now.

Getting a visa will soon be more difficult than it is now.

D In comparisons of the type shown in C above, if we have an infinitive before as/than we will usually have an infinitive (not a gerund) after it, Similarly, if we have a gerund before as/than we will normally have a gerund (not an infinitive) after it. See examples above, But if we have a finite verb + this/that/which before as/than we can have a gerund after it. An infinitive is possible but would be much less usual:

I’ll deliver it by hand; this will be cheaper than posting it. He cleaned his shoes, which was better than doing nothing.

E Infinitives are used with would rather/sooner (see 297-8):

Most people would rather work than starve. I would resign rather than accept him as a partner.

342 Time clauses

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A These are introduced by conjunctions of time such as:

after

immediately

till/until

as

no sooner . . . than

when

as soon as

since

whenever

before

the sooner

while

hardly . . . when

They can also be introduced by the minute, the moment. For examples with when, as, while, see 331-3.

For examples with before, see 195 B.

B Remember that we do not use a future form, or a conditional tense, in a time clause.

Each of the following future forms becomes a present tense when we put it in a time clauseFuture simple:

You 'II be back soon. I'll stay till then. = I'll stay till you get back. be going to:

The parachutist is going to jump. Soon after he jumps his parachute will open.

The present continuous, used as a future form, and the future continuous: He's arriving/He 'II be arriving at six but

When he arrives he'll tell us all about the match.

Before he arrives I'll give the children their tea. But the continuous tense can, of course, be used in time clauses when it indicates a continuous action:

Peter and John will be playing/are playing/are going to play tennis tonight. While they are playing (during this time) we 'II go to the beach.

The future perfect changes to the present perfect, and the future perfect continuous changes to the present perfect continuous:

I'll have finished in the bathroom in a few minutes.

The moment/As soon as I have finished I'll give you a call. A conditional tense changes to a past tense:

We knew that he would arrive/would be arriving about six. We knew that till he arrived nothing would be done.

But when when introduces a noun clause it can be followed by a future or conditional tense: He said. 'When will the train get in?' =

He asked when the train would get in.

CClauses with since (see also 187-8)

In clauses since is usually followed by perfect tenses (but see 188);

They 've moved house twice since they got married or Since they got married, they 've moved house twice. He said he'd lived in a tent since his house burnt down. It's ages since I sailed/have sailed a boat. I haven't sailed a boat since I left college.

DClauses with after

In clauses after is often followed by perfect tenses:

After/When he had rung off I remembered. . .

After/When you 've finished with it, hang it up.

Ehardly/scarcely . . . when, no sooner . . . than (see also 45) The performance had hardly begun when the lights went out or Hardly had the performance begun when the lights went out.

scarcely could replace hardly here but is less usual,

He had no sooner drunk the coffee than he began to feel drowsy or No sooner had he drunk the coffee than he began to feel drowsy. He no sooner earns any money than he spends it or Immediately he earns any money he spends it. (more colloquial)

Note also the sooner . . . the sooner:

The sooner we start, the sooner we'll be there.

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35 Noun clauses

Noun clauses are very often introduced by that and are therefore often called that-clauses. However, not all noun clauses are that-clauses.

343 Noun clauses (that-clauses) as subject of a sentence

A Sentences with noun clause subjects usually begin with it (see 67 D):

It is disappointing that Tom can't come.

'that Tom can't come' is the subject.

B The usual construction is it + be/seem + adjective + noun clause (see 26-7):

It’s splendid that you passed your exam.

It's strange that there are no lights on.

Some adjectives require or can take that . . . should (see 236):

It is essential that everybody knows/should know what to do.

An alternative construction is it + be/seem + a + noun + noun clause. Nouns that can be used here include mercy, miracle, nuisance, pity, shame, relief, wonder, a good thing is also possible.

It's a great pity (that) they didn't get married. It's a wonder (that) you weren't killed.

It's a good thing (thai) you were insured.

I that-clauses after certain adjectives/participles

The construction here is subject + be + adjective/past participle + noun clause:

I am delighted that you passed your exam.

This construction can be used with

(a)adjectives expressing emotion: glad, pleased, relieved, sorry (see 26 P)

(b)adjectives/participles expressing anxiety, confidence etc.: afraid, anxious, aware, certain, confident, conscious, convinced (see 27). anxious requires that . . . should.

I'm afraid that I can't come till next week.

Are you certain that this is the right road?

345that-clauses after certain nouns

A that-clause can be placed after a large number of abstract nouns. The most useful of these are: allegation, announcement, belief, discovery, fact, fear, guarantee, hope, knowledge, promise, proposal, report, rumour, suggestion, suspicion, proposal and

suggestion require that . . . should,

The announcement that a new airport was to be built nearby aroused immediate opposition.

The proposal/suggestion that shops should open on Sundays led to a heated discussion.

A report that the area was dangerous was ignored by the residents.

346 Noun clauses as objects of verbs

A that-clauses are possible after a large number of verbs. Some of the most useful are given below.

acknowledge

find (wh)

recommend

admit

forget (wh)

remark

advise

guarantee

remember (wh)

agree

happen

remind

allege

hear (wh)

request

announce

hope

resolve

appear

imagine (wh)

reveal (wh)

arrange (wh)

imply

say (wh)

ask (wh)

indicate (wh)

see (wh)

assume

inform

seem

assure

insist

show (wh)

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beg

know (wh)

state (wh)

believe (wh)

leam

stipulate

command

make out (= state)

suggest (wh)

confess

mean

suppose

consider (wh)

notice (wh)

teach

declare

observe

tell (wh)

decide (wh)

occur to + object

think (wh)

demand

order

threaten

demonstrate

perceive

turn out

determine

presume

understand (wh)

discover

pretend

urge

doubt

promise

vow

estimate (wh)

propose

warn

expect

prove (wh)

wish

fear

realize (wh)

wonder (wh)

feel

recognize

and other verbs of communication, e.g. complain, deny, explain etc. (see 316 C).

wh: see E below.

Examples

They alleged/made out that they had been unjustly dismissed. He assumes that we agree with him. I can prove that she did it.

Most of the above verbs can also take another construction (see chapters 23-6). Note however that a verb + that-ctause does not necessarily have the same meaning as the same verb + infinitive/gerund/present participle: He saw her answering the letters means 'He watched her doing this' but He saw that she answered the letters could mean either 'He noticed that she did this' or 'He made sure by supervision that she did this'.

C appear, happen, occur, seem, turn out require it as subject:

It appears/seems that we have come on the wrong day. If occurred to me that he might be lying.

It turned out that nobody remembered the address.

D that + subject + should can be used after agree, arrange, be anxious, beg, command, decide, demand, determine, be determined, order, resolve and urge instead of an infinitive construction, and after insist and suggest instead of a gerund:

They agreed/decided that a statue should be put up. He urged that the matter should go to arbitration.

He suggested that a reward should be offered. (See 235, 302 E.)

Verbs in section A marked '(wh)' can also be followed by noun clauses beginning with wh-words: what, when, where, who, why, or with how:

He asked where he was to go.

They'll believe whatever you tell them. I forget who told me this.

Have you heard how he is getting on? I can't think why he left his wife.

I wonder when he will pay me back.

347 so and not representing a that-clause

A After believe, expect, suppose, think and after it appears/seems:

Will Tom be at the party? -- I expect so/suppose so/think so = I think he will.

For the negative we use: A negative verb with so:

Will the scheme be a success? ~ I don't believe so/expect so/suppose so/think so. Are they making good progress? ~ It doesn't seem so.

2Or an affirmative verb with not:

It won't take long, will it? ~ No, I suppose not or I don't suppose so.

The plane didn't land in Calcutta, did it? ~ I believe not or I don't believe so.

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B so and not can be used similarly after hope and be afraid (= be sorry to say):

Is Peter coming with us? ~ I hope so.

Will you have to Ray duly on this? ~ I'm afraid so.

The negative here is made with an affirmative verb + not: Have you got a work permit? ~ I'm afraid not.

C so and not can be used after say and tell + object:

How do you know there is going to be a demonstration? ~ Jack said so/Jack told me so.

I told you so! can mean 'I told you that this was the case/that this would happen'. This usually annoys the person addressed. For tell the only negative form is negative verb + so:

Tom didn't tell me so.

For say there are two negative forms, but the meaning is not the same:

Tom didn't say so = Tom didn't say that there would be a demonstration. Tom said not = Tom said there wouldn't be a demonstration.

Dif + so/not

so/not after if can replace a previously mentioned/understood subject + verb:

Will you be staying another night? If so (= If you are), we can give you a better room. If not (= If you aren't), could you be out of your room by 12:00?

if so/not here usually represents a clause of condition as shown above, but for if so, see also 338 A.

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36

Numerals, dates, and weights and measures

348

Cardinal numbers (adjectives and pronouns)

1 one

11 eleven

21 twenty-one

31 thirty-one etc.

2 two

12 twelve

22 twenty-two

40 forty

3 three

13 thirteen

23 twenty-three

50 fifty

4 four

14 fourteen

24 twenty-four

60 sixty

5 five

15 fifteen

25 twenty-five

70 seventy

6 six

16 sixteen

26 twenty-six

80 eighty

7 sewn

17 seventeen

27 twenty-seven

90 ninety

8 eight

18 eighteen

28 twenty-eight

100 a hundred

9 nine

19 nineteen

29 twenty-nine

1,000 a thousand

10 ten

20 twenty

30 thirty

1,000,000 a million

400 four hundred

140 a/one hundred and forty

1,006 a/one thousand and six

5,000 five thousand

260,127 two hundred and sixty thousand, one hundred and twenty-seven

349 Points to notice about cardinal numbers

AWhen writing in words, or reading, a number composed of three or more figures we place and before the word denoting tens or units:

713 seven hundred and thirteen

5,102 five thousand, one hundred and two but

6,100 six thousand, one hundred (no tens or units) and is used similarly with hundreds of thousands:

320,410 three hundred and twenty thousand, four hundred and ten and hundreds of millions: 303.000,000 three hundred and three million

Ba is more usual than one before hundred, thousand, million etc, when these numbers stand alone or begin an expression:

100 a hundred 1,000 a thousand

100,000 a hundred thousand

We can also say a hundred and one, a hundred and two etc. up to a hundred and ninety-nine and a thousand and one etc. up to a thousand and ninety-nine. Otherwise we use one, not a (see above). So:

1,040 a/one thousand and forty but

1,140 one thousand, one hundred and forty

C The words hundred, thousand, million and dozen. when used of a definite number, are never

made plural:

six hundred men ten thousand pounds

two dozen eggs If however, these words are used

loosely, merely to convey the idea of a large number, they must be made plural:

hundreds of people thousands of birds

dozens of times Note also that in this case the

preposition of is placed after hundreds, thousands etc.

of is not used with definite numbers except before the/them/ these/those or possessives: so: of the blue ones ten of these four of Tom's brothers

D Numbers composed of four or more figures are divided into groups of three as shown above. Decimals are indicated by '•', which is read 'point':

10.92 ten point nine two

A zero after a decimal point is usually read 'nought':

8.04 eight point nought four

But 'o' and 'zero' would also be possible.

350 Ordinal numbers (adjectives and pronouns)

first

eleventh

twenty-first

thirty-first etc.

second

twelfth

twenty-second

fortieth

third

thirteenth

twenty-third

fiftieth

fourth

fourteenth

twenty-fourth

sixtieth

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twenty-first = 21st

fifth

fifteenth

twenty-fifth

seventieth

sixth

sixteenth

twenty-sixth

eightieth

seventh

seventeenth

twenty-seventh

ninetieth

eighth

eighteenth

twenty-eighth

hundredth

ninth

nineteenth

twenty-ninth

thousandth

tenth

twentieth

thirtieth

millionth

When writing in words or reading fractions other than ½ (a half) and ¼ (a quarter), we use a combination of cardinal and ordinal numbers:

1/5 a/one fifth 1/10 a/one tenth (a is more usual than one) 3/5 three fifths 7/10 seven tenths

A whole number + a fraction can be followed directly by a plural noun: 2 ¼ miles == two and a quarter miles

½ (half) can be followed directly by a noun but other fractions require of before a noun: half a second but a quarter of a second (See also 2 E.)

half + of can also be used, but the of is optional:

Half (of) my earnings go in tax.

351 Points to notice about ordinal numbers

A Notice the irregular spelling of fifth, eighth, ninth and twelfth.

B When ordinal numbers are expressed in figures the last two letters of the written word must

be added (except in dates): first = 1st

second = 2nd

forty-second = 42nd

third = 3rd

sixty-third = 63rd

fourth = 4th

eightieth = 80th

C In compound ordinal numbers the rule about and is the same as for compound cardinal

numbers: 101st = the hundred and first.

The article the normally precedes ordinal numbers:

the sixtieth day

the fortieth visitor

Titles of kings etc. are written in Roman figures:

Charles V James III

Elizabeth II

But in spoken English we use the ordinal numbers preceded by the:

Charles the Fifth

James the Third

Elizabeth the Second

352

Dates

The days of the week

The months of the year

Sunday (Sun.)

January (Jan.)

July

Monday (Mm.)

February (Feb.)

August (Aug.)

Tuesday (Tues.)

March (Mar.)

September (Sept.)

Wednesday (Wed.)

April (Apr.)

October (Oct.)

Thursday (Thurs.)

May

November (Nov.)

Friday (Fri.)

June

December (Dec.)

Saturday (Sat.)

Days and months are always written with capital letters. Dates are expressed by ordinal numbers, so when speaking we say:

March the tenth, July the fourteenth etc. or the tenth of March etc.

They can, however, be written in a variety of ways; e.g. March the tenth could be written:

March 10 10 March

10th of March

March 10th

10th March

March the 10th

BThe year

When reading or speaking we use the term hundred but not thousand. The year 1987 would be read as nineteen hundred and eighty-seven or nineteen eighty-seven.

Years before the Christian era are followed by the letters BC (= Before Christ) and years dating from the Christian era are occasionally preceded by the letters AD (= Anno Domini, in

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the year of the Lord). The former are read in either way: 1500 BC would be read as one thousand five hundred BC or fifteen hundred BC.

353

Weights, length and liquid measure

A

Weights

The English weights table is as follows:

IS ounces (oz.) = 1 pound (Ib.)

14 Rounds

= 1 stow (st.)

8 stone

= 1 hundredweight (cict.)

20 hundredweight = 1 ton

1 pound

== 0-454 kilogram (kg) 2-2 pounds

= 1 kilogram 2.204-6 tbs

= 1

metric tonne

Plurals

ounce, pound and ton can take a in the plural when they are used as nouns, stone and hundredweight do not take s: e.g. we say six

Round of sugar or six pounds of sugar, but ten hundredweight of coal has no alternative.

When used in compound adjectives these terms never take a:

a ten-ton lorry kilo or kilogram usually take s in the plural when used as nouns: two kilos of apples or two kilograms of apples

BLength

The English table of length is as follows:

12 inches (in.) = 1 foot (ft.)

3 feet

= 1 yard (yd.)

1,760 yards

= 1 mile (m.)

1 inch

= 2.54 centimetres (cm)

1 yard

= 0.914 metre (m)

1 mile

= 1.609 kilometres (km)

Plurals

When there is more than one inch/mite/centimetre we normally use the plural form of these words:

one inch, ten inches one mile, four miles one centimetre, five centimetres

When there is more than one foot we can use either foot or feet. feet is the more usual when measuring heights. We can say;

six foot tall or six feet tall two foot long or two feet long When used in compound adjectives the above forms never take the plural form: a two-mile walk, a six-inch ruler.

C

Liquid measure

2 pints (Rt.)

= 1 quart (qt.)

1 pint = 0.568 litre (I)

4 quarts

= 1 gallon (gal.)

1 gallon= 4.55 litres

D Traditionally British measurements have been made in ounces, inches, pints etc. but there is now a gradual move towards the metric system.

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37 Spelling rules

For noun plurals, see also 12. For verb forms, see also 165, 172, 175.

354Introduction

Vowels are: a e i o u

Consonants are: b c d f g h j k l m n p q r s t v w x y z

A suffix is a group of letters added to the end of a word: beauty, beautiful (ful is the suffix.)

355Doubling the consonant

A

Words of one syllable having one vowel and ending in a single consonant double the

consonant before a suffix beginning with a vowel:

hit + ing = hitting

but keep, keeping (two vowels)

knit + ed = knitted

help, helped (two consonants)

run + er = runner

love, lover (ending in a vowel) qu here is considered as one

consonant: quit, quitting. When the final consonant is w, x or y it does not double:

row + ed -= rowed

box + ing = boxing

BTwoor three-syllable words ending in a single consonant following a single vowel double the final consonant when the stress falls on the last syllable. (The stressed syllable is in bold

type.)

acquit + ed = acquitted

but murmur + ed = murmured begin + er -= beginner

answer +

er = answerer deter + ed == deterred

orbit + ing = orbiting recur + ing = recurring

focus + ed, however, can be spelt focused orfocussed and bias + ed can

be spelt biased or biassed.

C The final consonant of handicap, kidnap, worship is also doubled:

handicap, handicapped

worship, worshipped kidnap, kidnapped

DWords ending in 1 following a single vowel or two vowels pronounced separately usually double the 1:

appal, appalled duel, duellist

repel, repellent cruel, cruelly

model, modelling

quarrel, quarrelling dial, dialled

refuel, refuelled

signal, signalled distil, distiller

356 Omission of a final e

A Words ending in e following a consonant drop the e before a suffix beginning with a vowel: believe + er = believer

love + ing = losing move + able = movable

But riye and singe keep their final e before ing to avoid confusion with die and sing: dye, dyeing singe, singeing age keeps its e before ing except in American English: age, ageing

likable can also be spelt likeable. Words ending in ce or ge sometimes retain the e. See 357. B A final e is retained before a suffix beginning with a consonant:

engage, engagement fortunate, fortunately hope. hopeful immediate, immediately

sincere, sincerely But the e m able/ible is dropped in the adverb form:

comfortable, comfortably incredible, incredibly The final e is also dropped in the following words:

argue, argument due, duly

judge, judgement or judgment true, truly whole, wholly (notice the double 1 here)

C Words ending in ee do not drop an e before a suffix:

agree, agreed, agreeing, agreement foresee, foreseeing, foreseeable

357 Words ending in ce and ge

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A

Words ending in ce or ge retain the e before a suffix beginning with a, o or u:

courage, courageous

peace, peaceful

manage, manageable

replace, replaceable

outrage, outrageous

trace, traceable

This is done to avoid changes in pronunciation, because c and g are generally pronounced

soft before e and i, but hard before a, o or u.

B Words ending in ce change the e to i before ous:

grace, gracious

space, spacious

malice, malicious

vice, vicious

358

The suffix ful

When full is added to a word the second l is dropped:

beauty + full = beautiful (but note adverb form beautifully)

use + full = useful (but note adverb form usefully)

If the word to which the suffix is added ends in ll the second I is dropped here also: skill + full

= skilful.

Note full + fill = fulfil.

359

Words ending in y

Words ending in y following a consonant change the y to i before any suffix except ing:

carry + ed = earned

but

carry + ing = carrying

happy + !y = happily

hurry + ing = hurrying

sunny + er = sunnier y following a vowel does not change:

obey + ed = obeyed

play + er = player For plural forms of nouns, see 12.

360ie and ei

The normal rule is that i comes before e except after c:

believe, sieve but deceive, receipt There are however the following exceptions:

beige

feint

heir

reign

their

counterfeit

foreign

inveigh

rein

veil

deign

forfeit

inveigle

seize

vein

eiderdown

freight

leisure

skein

weigh

eight

heifer

neigh

sleigh

weight

either

height

neighbour

sleight weir

feign

heinous

neither

surfeit

weird

361 Hyphens

A Compound words are formed by linking two or more words to make one unit. We can write the compound:

(a)as one word: bystander, hairdresser, teacup

(b)as two or more words: amusement arcade, post office

(c)with a hyphen: launching-pad, lay-by, tooth-brush

It is impossible in most cases to give a firm rule on when a hyphen should be used. When a compound has become familiar through constant use, the hyphen can be omitted: layby, toothbrush. This, however, does not always happen and a native English writer is quite capable of writing toothbrush, tooth brush or tooth-brush at different times.

If the compound is formed of monosyllables, it is more likely to be written as one word. In cases of doubt it is better to omit hyphens or consult a modem dictionary.

B Hyphens are necessary;

(a) when pronunciation or meaning might be unclear without them: co-operate re-cover (= cover again)

(b) when words form a compound in a particular sentence: a do-it-yourself shop

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ago-as-you-please railway ticket

(c)in adjective phrases dealing with age, size, weight and duration of time:

a five-year-old child

a ten-ton vehicle

a six-foot wall

a five-minute interval

Note that the compound is not in the plural form: no s. Adverb/participle compounds used as

adjectives are commonly hyphenated, especially when there is a danger of

misunderstanding:

low-flying aircraft

quick-dissolving sugar

C

Hyphens are used in a temporary way to divide a word at the end of a line. The

division must be made at a natural break in the word, i.e. between syllables;

dis-cauraged

look-ing

inter-val

A monosyllable should not be divided.

31 Indirect speech

307Direct and indirect (or reported) speech

There are two ways of relating what a person has said: direct and indirect. In direct speech we repeat the original speaker's exact words:

He said, 'I have lost my umbrella.'

Remarks thus repeated are placed between inverted commas, and a ' comma or colon is placed immediately before the remark. Direct speech

is found in conversations in books, in plays, and in quotations.

In indirect speech we give the exact meaning of a remark or a speech, without necessarily using the speaker's exact words:

He said (that) he had lost his umbrella.

There is no comma after say in indirect speech. that can usually be omitted after say and tell + object. But it should be kept after other verbs: complain, explain, object, point out, protest etc. Indirect speech is normally used when conversation is reported verbally, though direct speech is sometimes employed here to give a more dramatic effect.

When we turn direct speech into indirect, some changes are usually necessary. These are most easily studied by considering statements, questions, and commands separately.

308Statements in indirect speech: tense changes necessary

A Indirect speech can be introduced by a verb in a present tense: He says that. . . This is usual when we are:

(a)reporting a conversation that is still going on

(b)reading a letter and reporting what it says

(c)reading instructions and reporting them

(d)reporting a statement that someone makes very often, e.g. Tom says that he'll never get married.

When the introductory verb is in a present, present perfect or future tense we can report the direct speech without any change of tense:

PAUL (phoning from the station): I'm trying to get a taxi.

ANN (to Mary, who is standing beside her): Paul says he is trying to get a taxi.

B But indirect speech is usually introduced by a verb in the past tense. Verbs in the direct speech have then to be changed into a corresponding past tense. The changes are shown in the following table. (The that has been omitted in the last five examples.)

Direct speech

Indirect speech

Simple present

Simple past

‘I never ml meat.' he explained

= He explained that he never ate meat.

Present continuous

Past continuous

'I'm waiting/or Ann.' he said

= He said (thai) he was waiting for Ann.

Present perfect

Past perfect

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I have found a flat,' he said Present perfect continuous Hesaid, 'I've been waiting forages' Simple past

I took it home with me,' she said Future

He said, I will/shall be in Paris m Monday'

Future continuous

'I will/shall be using the car myself on the 24th,' she said

But note, Conditional

I said, 7 would/should like to see it'

=He said (that) he had found a flat. Past perfect continuous

=He said he had been waiting for ages. Past perfect

=She said she had taken it home with her. Conditional

=He said he would be in Paris cm

Monday.

Conditional continuous

= She said she'd be using the car herself on the 24th.

Conditional

= I said I would/should like to see it. (No tense change. See also 227.)

CNote on I/we shall/should

'I/we shall' normally becomes he/she/they would in indirect speech:

I shall be 21 tomorrow,' said Bill = Bill said he would be 21 the following day. But if the sentence is reported by the original speaker, 'I/we shall' can become either I/we should or I/we would, would is the more common.

Similarly 'I/we should' usually becomes he/she/they would in indirect speech: 'If I had the instruction manual I should/would know what to do,'

said Bill =

Bill said that if he had the instructions he would know what to do. But if the sentence is reported by the original speaker 'I/we should' can either remain unchanged or be reported by wouldSee last example in B above.

309 Past tenses sometimes remain unchanged

A In theory the past tense changes to the past perfect, but in spoken English it is often left unchanged, provided this can be done without causing confusion about the relative times of the actions. For example, He said. 'I loved her' must become He said he had loved her as otherwise there would be a change of meaning. But He said, 'Ann arrived on Monday' could be reported He said Ann arrived/had arrived on Monday.

B The past continuous tense in theory changes to the past perfect continuous but in practice usually remains unchanged except when it refers to a completed action:

She said, 'We were thinking of selling the house but we have decided not to' =

She said that they had been thinking of selling the house but had decided not to. But He said, 'When I saw them they were playing tennis' = He said that when he saw them they were playing tennis.

C In written English past tenses usually do change to past perfect but there are the following exceptions:

1 Past/Past continuous tenses in time clauses do not normally change: He said, 'When we were living/lived in Paris . . .' =

He said that when they were living in Paris . . . The main verb of such sentences can either remain unchanged or become the past perfect:

He said, 'When we were living/lived in Paris we often saw Paul' = fie said that when they were living/lived in Paris they often saw/had often seen Paul.

2 A past tense used to describe a state of affairs which still exists when the speech is reported remains unchanged:

She said, 'I decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road' = She said that she had decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road.

310 Unreal past tenses (subjunctives) in indirect speech

A Unreal past tenses after wish, would rather/sooner and it is time

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do not change:

'We wish we didn't have to take exams.' said the children = The children said they wished they didn't have to take exams.

'Bill wants to go alone,' said Ann, 'but I'd rather he went with a group' = Ann said that Bill wanted to go alone but that she 'd rather he went with a group.

'It's time we began planning our holidays,' he said = He said that it was time they began planning their holidays.

BI/he/she/we/they had better remains unchanged, you had better can remain unchanged or be reported by advise + object + infinitive (see 120):

'The children had better go to bed early,' said Tom = Tom said that the children had

better go to bed early.

'You'd better not drink the water,' she said = She advised/warned us not to drink the water. C Conditional sentences types 2 and 3 remain unchanged (see 229):

'If my children were older I would emigrate,' he said = He said that if his children were older he would emigrate.

311might, ought to, should, would, used to in indirect statements

A might remains unchanged except when used as a request form:

He said, 'Ann might ring today' = He said that Ann might ring (that day).

But 'You might post these for me' he said = He asked me to post them for him. (See 285 for requests.)

B ought to/should for obligation or assumption remains unchanged:

'They ought to/should widen this road,' I said = I said that they ought to/should widen the

road. I said,

'I should be back by six' (I assume I will be) = I said I should be back by six.

CBut you ought to/you should, if used to express advice rather than obligation, can be reported by advise + object + infinitive, you must can also express advice and be reported similarly. 'You ought to/should/must read the instructions,' said Ann = Ann advised/urged/warned me to read the instructions.

DThe advice form 'Ifl were you I should/would . . .' is normally reported by advise + object + infinitive:

'If I were you I'd wait,'I said = I advised him to waif,

EThe request form 'I should/would be (very) grateful if you would . . .' is normally reported by ask + object + infinitive:

'I'd be very grateful if you 'd keep me informed,' he said = He asked me to keep him informed.

Fwould in statements doesn't change. But see 284 for would in requests etc.

Gused to doesn't change:

'I know the place well because I used to live here,' he explained = He explained thai he knew the place well because he used to live there.

(For could, see 312; for must, see 325.)

312could in indirect statements

(For could interrogative, see 283-4.)

A could for ability

1 could for present ability does not change:

'I can't/couldn't stand on my head.' he said = He said he couldn't stand on his head.

2 could for future ability can remain unchanged or be reported by would be able:

He said, 'I could do it tomorrow' = He said he could do it/would be able to do it the next day.

could in type 2 conditional sentences is reported similarly:

'If I had the tools I could mend it,' he said = He said that if he had the tools he could/would be able to mend it. would be able here implies that the supposition may be fulfilled. (Perhaps he'll be able to borrow tools.)

could in type 3 conditional sentences is reported unchanged.

could for past ability can remain unchanged or be reported by had been able:

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‘I could read when I was three.' she boasted = She boasted that she could/had been able to read when she was three.

Bcould for permission

In type 2 conditional sentences could can remain unchanged or be reported by would be allowed to:

'If I paid my fine I could walk out of prison today,' he said = He said that if he paid his fine he could/would be allowed to walk etc.

could in the past can remain unchanged or be reported by was/were allowed to or had been allowed to:

He said, 'When I was a boy I could stay up as long as I liked' = He said that when he was a boy he could/was allowed to stay up or He said that as a boy he was/had been allowed etc.

313Indirect speech: pronoun and adjective

Pronouns and possessive adjectives usually change from first or second to third person except when the speaker is reporting his own words:

He said, 'I've forgotten the combination of my safe' = He said that he had forgotten the

combination of his safe.

I said, 'I like my new house' = I said that I liked my new house, (speaker reporting his own words)

Sometimes a noun must be inserted to avoid ambiguity: Tom said. 'He cane in through the window' would not normally be reported Tom said he had come in through the window as this might imply that Tom himself had come in this way; but if we use a noun there can be no confusion:

Tom said that the man/burglar/cat etc, had come in . . .

Pronoun changes may affect the verb:

He says. 'I know her' = He says he knows her.

He says, '! shall be there' = He says that he will be there. B this and these

this used in time expressions usually becomes that: He said, 'She is coming this week' =

He said that she was coming that week. Otherwise this and that used as adjectives usually change to the:

He said, 'I bought this pearl/these pearls for my mother' =

He said that he had bought the peart/pearls for his mother. this, these used as pronouns can become it, they/them:

He showed me two bullets. 'I found these embedded in the panelling,' he said =

He said he had found them embedded in the panelling.

He said, 'We will discuss this tomorrow' = He said that they would discuss it/the waiter the next day. this, these (adjectives or pronouns), used to indicate choice or to distinguish some things from others, can become the one(s) near him etc., or the statement can be reworded:

'I'll have this (one),' he said to me = He said he would have the one near him or He pointed to/touched/showed me the one he wanted.

314 Expressions of time and place in indirect speech

A Adverbs and adverbial phrases of time change as follows:

Direct

Indirect

today

that day

yesterday

the day before

the day before yesterday

two days before

tomorrow

the next day/the following day

the day after tomorrow

in two days' time

next week/year etc.

the following week/year etc.

last week/year etc.

the previous week/year etc.

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a year etc. ago

a year before/the previous year

'I saw her the day before yesterday,' he said = He said he'd seen her two days before. 'I'll do it tomorrow,' he promised = He promised that he would do it the next day.

'I'm starting the day after tomorrow, mother.' he said = He told his mother that he was starting in two days' time.

She said, 'My father died a year ago' = She said that her father had died a year before/the previous year.

B But if the speech is made and reported on the same day these time changes are not necessary:

At breakfast this morning he said. ‘I’ll be very busy today' = At breakfast this morning he said that he would be very busy today.

CLogical adjustments are of course necessary if a speech is reported one/two days after it is made. On Monday Jack said to Tom:

I'm leaving the day after tomorrow.

If Tom reports this speech on the next day (Tuesday) he will probably say:

Jack said he was leaving tomorrow.

If he reports it on Wednesday, he will probably say: Jack said he was leaving today.

D here can become there but only when it is clear what place is meant:

At the station he said, ‘I’ll be here again tomorrow' = He said that he 'd be there again the next day.

Usually here has to be replaced by some phrase:

She said, 'You can sit here, Tom' = She told Tom that he could sit beside her etc. But He said, 'Come here, boys' would normally be reported:

He called the boys.

315 Infinitive and gerund constructions in indirect speech

Aagree/refuse/offer/promise/threaten + infinitive can sometimes be used instead of say (that):

ANN: Would you wait half an hour? TOM: All right = Tom agreed to wait or Tom said he would wait.

ANN: Would you lend me another £50?

TOM: No. I won't lend you any more money = Tom refused to lend her any more money or Tom said thai he wouldn't lend etc.

PAUL: I'll help you if you like, Ann = Paul offered to help her or Paul said that he'd help her. (See also shall I?, 318.)

ANN: I'll pay you back next week. Really I will. = Ann promised to pay him back the following

week or

Ann said that she would pay him back or

Ann assured him that she would pay him back.

KIDNAPPERS: If you don't pay the ransom at once we'll kill your daughter = The kidnappers threatened to kill his daughter if he didn 't Ray the ransom at once or The kidnappers said that they would kill etc:

(For object + infinitive constructions, see 320.)

Baccuse . . . of/admit/apologize for/deny/insist on + gerund can sometimes be used instead of say (that):

TOM took the money!' might be reported

He accused me of taking the money. 'I stole/didn't steal it' might be reported I admitted/denied stealing it.

'I'm sorry I'm late,' he said might be reported He apologized for being late or

He said,he was sorry he was tale. BILL: Let me pay/or myself.

TOM: Certainly not! I'll pay! might be reported Tom insisted on paying.

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316 say, tell and alternative introductory verbs

Asay and tell with direct speech

1say can introduce a statement or follow it:

Tom said, 'I've just heard the news' or 'I've just heard the news,' Tom said. Inversion of say and noun subject is possible when say follows the

statement:

'I've just heard the news,' said Tom. say + to + person addressed is possible, but this phrase must follow the direct statement; it cannot introduce it:

'I'm leaving at once,' Tom said to me. Inversion is not possible here.

2tell requires the person addressed:

Tell me. He told us. I'll tell Tom. except with tell lies/stories/the truth, when the person addressed need not be mentioned:

He told (me) lies. I'll tell (you) a story. tell used with direct speech must be placed after the

direct statement:

'I'm leaving at once,' Tom told me. Inversion is not possible with tell.

Bsay and tell with indirect speech

Indirect statements are normally introduced by say, or tell + object. say 4- to + object is possible but much less usual than tell + object:

He said he'd just heard the news.

He told me that he'd just heard the news.

Note also tell . . . how/about:

He told us how he had crossed the mountains. He told us about crossing the mountains.

He told us about his journeys.

(For say and tell with indirect commands, see 320-1.)

Other useful verbs are:

add*

complain*

point out

admit*

deny*

promise*

answer*

explain*

protest*

argue*

grumble*

remark*

assure + object

object*

remind + object

boast*

observe*

reply*

These can be used with direct or indirect speech. With direct speech they follow direct statements;

'It won't cost more,' Tom assured us.

Starred verbs can be inverted, provided the subject is a noun: 'But it will take longer,' Bill objected/objected Bill.

'It'll cost too much,' Jack grumbled/grumbled Jack. They can all introduce indirect statements. that should be placed after the verb:

Tom assured us that it wauldn 't cost more. But Bill objected/pointed out that it would take longer.

D murmur, mutter, shout, stammer, whisper can precede or follow direct statements or questions. With noun subjects the verb can be inverted as shown above:

'You're late,' whispered Tom/Tom whispered.

They can introduce indirect statements, that is usually necessary:

Tom whispered that we were late.

There are, of course, a lot of other verbs describing the voice or the tone of voice, e.g. bark, growl, roar, scream, shriek, snarl, sneer, yell. But these are more common with direct than indirect speech.

317Questions in indirect speech

Direct question: He said, 'Where is she going?' Indirect question: He asked where she was going.

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When we turn direct questions into indirect speech, the following changes are necessary. Tenses, pronouns and possessive adjectives, and adverbs of time and place change as in statements.

The interrogative form of the verb changes to the affirmative form. The question mark (?) is therefore omitted in indirect questions:

He said, 'Where does she live?' = He asked where she lived.

With affirmative verb questions (see 55) this change is obviously not necessary:

'Who lives next door?' he said = He asked who lived next door. 'What happened?' she said = She asked what had happened.

If the introductory verb is .say, it must be changed to avert of inquiry, e.g. ask, inquire, wonder, want to know etc.:

He said, 'Where is the station?' = He asked where the station was.

ask, inquire, wonder can also be used in direct speech. They are then usually placed at the end of the sentence:

'Where is the station?' he inquired.

C ask can be followed by the person addressed (indirect object): Heasked, 'What have you got in your bag?' =

He asked (me) what I had got in my bag. But inquire, wonder, want to know cannot take an indirect object, so if we wish to report a question where the person addressed is mentioned, we must use ask:

He said. 'Mary, when is the next train?' =

He asked Mary when the next train was. If we use inquire, wonder or want to know we must omit Mary.

D If the direct question begins with a question word (when, where, who, how, why etc.) the question word is repeated in the indirect question:

Hesaid, 'Why didn't you put on the brake?' =

He asked (her) why she hadn 'f put on the brake. She said, 'What do you want?' =

She asked (them) what they wanted.

E If there is no question word, if or whether must be used:

7s anyone there?' he asked = He asked if/whether anyone was there. 1 Normally we can use either if and whether, if is the more usual: 'Do you know Bill?' he said =

He asked if/whether I knew Bill.

'Did you see the accident?' the policeman asked =

The policeman asked if/whether I had seen the accident. 2 whether can emphasize that a choice has to be made:

'Do you want to go by air or sea?' the travel agent asked = The travel agent asked whether I wanted to go by air or by sea. Note whether or not:

'Do you want to insure your luggage or not?' he asked == He asked whether or not I wanted to insure my luggage or He asked if I wanted to insure my luggage or not.

3 whether + infinitive is possible after wonder, want to know: 'Shall/Should 1wait for them or go on?' he wondered =

He wondered whether to wait for them or go on or

He wondered whether he should wait for them or go on. inquire + whether + infinitive is possible but less usual. (For whether + infinitive, see also 242 B.)

4 whether is neater if the question contains a conditional clause as otherwise there would be two ifs:

'If you get the job will you move to York?' Bill asked = Bill asked whether, if I got the job, I'd move to York.

Questions beginning shall I/we? in indirect speech Questions beginning shall I/we? can be of four kinds.

Speculations or requests for information about a future event:

'Shall I ever see them again?' he wondered. 'When shall I know the result of the test?' she asked.

These follow the ordinary rule about shall/will. Speculations are usually introduced by wonder:

He wondered if he would ever see them again. She asked when she would know the result of the test.

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Requests for instructions or advice:

'What shall I do with it?' = 'Tell me what to do with it.' These are expressed in indirect speech by ask, inquire etc., with should or the be + infinitive construction. Requests for advice are normally reported by should:

'Shall we post it. sir?' he said =

He asked the customer if they were to post/if they should post if. 'What shall I say, mother?' she said =

She asked her mother what she should say. (request for advice) When a choice is required we normally use whether in indirect speech. whether + infinitive is sometimes possible (see also 317 E):

'Shall I lock the car or leave it unlocked?' he said =

He asked whether he should/was to lock the car or leave it unlocked or He asked whether to lock the car etc.

Offers:

'Shall I bring you some tea?' could be reported He offered to bring me some tea.

Note that 'Wouldyou like me to bring you some tea?' and 'I'll bnngyou some tea if you like' could also be reported by offer.

Suggestions:

'Shall we meet at the theatre?' could be reported He suggested meeting at the theatre. Questions beginning will you/would you/could you?

These may be ordinary questions, but may also be requests, invitations, or, very occasionally, commands (see 284. 286, 320):

He said. 'Will you be there tomorrow?' (ordinary question) = He asked if she would be there the next day.

'Will you stand still!'he shouted = He shouted at me to standstill''^! He told/ordered me to stand still.

'Wouldyou like to live in New York?' he asked = He asked if I would tike to live in New York.

'Wilt/Would you file these letters, please?' he said = He asked/told me to/lie the Setters.

'Would you like a lift?' said Ann = Ann offered me a lift. 'Would you like to come round/Could yw come round for a drink?'

he said =

He invited me (to come) round for a drink. 'Could you live on £25 a week?' he asked = He asked if I could live on £25 a week. 'Could/Would you give me a hand?' she said = She asked us to give her a hand.

'Could/Would you show me the photos?' she said =

She asked me to show her the photos or She asked to see the photos. (For can/could/may/might + I/we?, see 283. For requests for permission, see 131.) 320 Commands, requests, advice in indirect speech

Direct command: He said, 'Lie down, Tom.' Indirect command: He told Tom to He down.

Indirect commands, requests, advice are usually expressed by a verb of comraand/request/advice + object + infinitive (== the object -i- infinitive construction).

A The following verbs can be used: advise, ask, beg, command, encourage, entreat, forbid, implore, invite, order, recommend, remind, request, tell, urge, warn.

(Note that say is not included in this list. For indirect commands/ requests reported by say, see 321.)

Hesaid. 'Get your coat, Tom!' = He told Tom to get his coat. 'You had better hurry, Bill!' she said = She advised Bill to hurry.

B Negative commands, requests etc. are usually reported by not •+• infinitive:

'Don't swim out too far, boys,' I said =

I warned/told the boys not to swim out too far. forbid can also be used for prohibitions, but is more common in the passive than in the active.

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C Verbs in A above require object + infinitive, i.e. they must be followed directly by the person addressed without preposition (see also 89). The person addressed is often not mentioned in direct commands, requests

etc.: He said, 'Go away!' When reporting such commands/requests therefore we must add a noun

or pronoun:

He told me/him/her/us/them/the children to go away. ask diners from the other verbs in A in that it can also be followed directly by the infinitive of certain verbs, e.g. see, speak to, talk to: He said. 'Could I see Tom, please?' =

He asked to see Tom. (See also 283.) But this is quite different from the ask + object + infinitive type of request.

Both ask and beg can be followed by the passive infinitive:

'Do. please, send me to a warm climate,' he asked/begged = He asked/begged us to send him to a warm climate or He asked/begged to be sent to a warm climate.

Examples of indirect commands, requests, advice Note that direct commands are usually expressed by the imperative, but that requests and advice can be expressed in a variety of

ways (see 283-7):

'If I were you, I'd slop taking tranquillizers,' I said =

I advised him to stop taking tranquillizers. (See 311 D.)

'Why don't you take off your coat?'he said =

He advised me to take off my coat. (See also 287.)

' Would/Could you show me your passport, please?' he said =

He asked me to show him my passport or

He asked me for/He asked to see my passport.

'You might post some letters for me,' said my boss =

My boss asked me to post some letters for him.

'If you 'd just sign the register,' said the receptionist =

The receptionist asked him to sign the register.

'Do sit down.' said my hostess =-

My hostess asked/invited me to sit down.

'Please, please don't take any risks,' said his wife =

His wife begged/implored him not to take any risks.

'Forget all about this you »g man,' said her parents: 'don't see him '

again or answer his

letters' =

Her parents ordered her to forget all about the young man and told

her not to see him again or answer his letters or

She was ordered to forget all about the young man and forbidden to ._

see him again or

answer his tetters, (passive construction)

'Don't forget to order the wine.' said Mrs Pitt =

Mrs Pitt reminded her husband to order the wine.

'Try again,' said Ann's friends encouragingly =

Ann's friends encouraged her to fry again.

'Go on, apply for the job,'said Jack =

Jack urged/encouraged me to apply for the job.

' You had better not leave your car unlocked,' said my friends;

'there's been a lot of stealing from cars' = '

My friends warned me not to leave my car

unlocked as there had been a lot of stealing from cars.

will you . . . sentences are normally treated as requests and reported by ask:

'Will all persons not travelling please go ashore,' he said = He asked at! persons not travelling to go ashore. But if a will you sentence is spoken sharply or irritably, and the ' please is omitted, it might be reported by tell or order;

'Will you be quiet!/Be quiet, will you!' he said = He told/ordered us to be quiet.

321Other ways of expressing indirect commands

A say/tell + subject + be + infinitive:

He said/told me that I was to wait. This is a possible alternative to the tell + infinitive construction, so that:

He said, 'Don't open the door' could be reported He told me not to open the door or

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fie said that I wasn 't to open the door. The be + infinitive construction is particularly useful in the following cases:

1 When the command is introduced by a verb in the present tense:

He says, 'Meet me at the station' = He says that we are to meet him at the station. (He tells us to meet him would be much less likely.)

2 When the command is preceded by a clause (usually of time or condition):

He said, 'If she leaves the house follow her' could be reported He said that if she left the house I was to follow her. He told me to follow her if she left the house would be equally possible here but note that if we use the tell + infinitive construction we must change the order of the sentence so as to put the command first. Sometimes this would result in a rather confusing sentence. For example, the request If you see Ann tell her to ring me would become He told me to tell Ann to ring him if I saw her. Such requests can only be reported by the be + infinitive construction:

He said that if I saw Ann I was to tell her to ring him. B say/tell (+ that) + subject + should

1 say or tell with a should construction normally indicates advice rather than command: He said, 'If your brakes are bad don't drive so fast' =

He said/told me that if my brakes were bad I shouldn 't drive so fast or

He advised me not to drive so fast if my brakes were bad. (Note change of order here, as with tell + infinitive above.)

2Advice can also be expressed by advise, recommend and urge + that. . . should. This is particularly useful in the passive (see 302 E):

'! advise cancelling the meeting.' he said s He advised that the meeting should be cancelled.

3command and order can also be used with should or a passive infinitive;

'Evacuate the area!' ordered the superintendent =

The superintendent ordered that everyone should lease the area or ordered that the area should be evacuated or

ordered the area to be evacuated.

4 Note that when an indirect command is expressed by an object + infinitive construction, as in 320, there is normally the idea that the

person who is to obey the command is addressed directly. But when the command is expressed by the be + infinitive construction (A above) or by a should construction (B3 above) the recipient of the command need not necessarily be addressed directly. The command may be conveyed to him by a third person.

322let's, let us, let him/them in indirect speech

let's

let's usually expresses a suggestion and is reported by suggest in indirect speech:

He said, 'Let's leave the case at the station' would be reported:

He suggested leaving the case at the station or He suggested that they/we should leave the case at the station.

(See 289 for constructions with suggest.) He said, 'Let's stop now and finish it later' would be reported:

He suggested stopping then and finishing it later or He suggested that they/we should stop then and finish it later.

Similarly in the negative:

He said, 'Let's not say anything about it till we hear the facts' = He suggested not saying anything/saying nothing about it till they heard the facts or He suggested that they shouldn 't say anything till they heard the facts.

But let's not used alone in answer to an affirmative suggestion is often reported by some phrase such as opposed the idea/was against it/objected. So that we could report:

'Let's sell the house,' said Tom. 'Lei's not,' said Ann by Tom suggested selling the house hut Ann was against it.

(For other suggestion forms, see 289.) ;. let's/let us sometimes expresses a call to action. It is then usually

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reported by urge/advise + object + infinitive (see also 320):

The strike leader said, 'Let's show the bosses that we are united' = The strike leader urged the workers to show the bosses that they were united.

323let him/them

In theory let him/them expresses a command. But very often the speaker has no authority over the person who is to obey the command;

7('s not my business,' said the postman. 'Let the government do something about it.'

Here, the speaker is not issuing a command but expressing an obligation. Sentences of this type are therefore normally reported by ought/should:

He said that if wasn 't his business and that the government ought to/should do something about it.

2 Sometimes, however, let him/them does express a command. It is then usually reported by say + be + infinitive (see 321):

'Let the boys clear up this mess,' said the headmaster -= The headmaster said that the boys were to clear up the mess. 'Let the guards'be armed,' he ordered = He ordered that the guards should be armed.

3 Sometimes let him/them is more a suggestion than a command. In such cases it is usually reported by suggest, or say + should (see 289):

She said, 'Let them go to their consul. He 'II be able to help them' = She suggested their/them going to their consul etc. or She suggested that they should go to their consul or She said that they should go to their consul.

4 let him/them can also indicate the speaker's indifference: 'The neighbours will complain,' said Ann.

'Let them (complain),' said Tom = Tom expressed indifference or Tom said he didn't mind (if they complained).

C let there be

Here the speaker could be ordering, advising, urging or begging:

'Let there be no reprisals,' said the widow of the murdered man = The widow urged/begged that there should be no reprisals.

D let is also an ordinary verb meaning allow/permit:

'Let him come with us, mother; I'll take care of him,' I said =

I asked my mother to let him come with us and promised to take care of him.

323Exclamations and yes and no

A Exclamations usually become statements in indirect speech. The exclamation mark disappears.

1 Exclamations beginning What <a). . . or How ... can be reported

(a) by exclaim/say that:

He said, 'What a dreadful idea!' or 'How dreadful.'' = He exclaimed that it was a dreadful idea/was dreadful

or (b) by give an exclamation of delight/disgust/horror/relief/ surprise etc-

Alternatively, if the exclamation is followed by an action we can use the construction (c) with an exclamation of delight/disgust etc. +

he/she etc. + verb.

2 Other types of exclamation, such as Good! Marvellous! Splendid! Heavens! Oh! Ugh! etc. can be reported as in (b) or (c) above:

'Good!' he exclaimed =

He gave an exclamation of pleasure/satisfaction.

' Ugh!' she exclaimed, and turned the programme off =

With an exclamation of disgust she turned the programme off.

Note also:

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He said, 'Thank you!' = He thanked me. ;' He said. 'Curse this fog.'' = He cursed the fog. He said. 'Good luck!' = He wished me luck.

He said. 'Happy Christmas'.' = He wished me a happy Christmas. He said, 'Congratulations9' = He congratulated me.

He said, 'Liar!' = He called me a liar. He said, 'Damn!'etc. = He swore.

The notice said: WELCOME TO WALES.' = '• The notice welcomed visitors to Wales. ri

yes and no are expressed in indirect speech by subject + appropriate ' auxiliary verb:

He said, 'Can you swim?'and I said'No' = He asked (me) if I could swim and I said I couldn't. Hesaid, 'Will you have time to do it?' and I said 'Yes' = He asked if I would have time to do it and I said that I would.

324Indirect speech: mixed types

Direct speech may consist of statement + question, question + command, command + statement, or all three together.

Normally each requires its own introductory verb:

'I don't know the way. Do you?' he asked .= ; He said he didn't know the way and asked her if she did/if she knew it.

'Someone's coming,' he said. 'Get behind the screen' =

He said that someone was coming and told me to get behind the screen.

'I'm going shopping. Can I get you anything?' she said = '' She said she was going shopping and asked if she could get me ; anything.

'I can hardly hear the radio,' he said. 'Could you turn it up?' =

He said he could hardly hear the radio and asked her to turn it up.

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But sometimes, when the iast clause is a statement which helps to explain the first, we can use as instead of a second introductory verb:

'You'd better wear a coat. it's very cold out.'he said =. He advised me to wear a coat as it was very cold out. 'You'd better not walk across the park alone. People have been

mugged there,' he said =

He warned her not to walk across the park alone as people had been mugged there. Sometimes the second introductory verb can be a participle:

'Please, please, don't drink too much! Remember thatyou'U have to drive home,' she said = She begged him not to drink too much, reminding him that he 'd have to drive home.

'Let's shop on Friday. The supermarket will be very crowded on Saturday,' she said =

She suggested shopping on Friday, pointing out that the supermarket would be very crowded on Saturday. (as could be used in both these examples.)

325 must and needn't

Amust used for deductions, permanent commands/prohibitions and to express intention remains unchanged. (For must, expressing advice, see 287 A.)

1 Deductions:

She said, 'I'm always running into him; he must live near here!' a She said that. . . he must live in the area.

2 Permanent command:

He said, 'This door must be kept locked' =-He said that the door must be kept locked. 3 must used casually to express intention:

He said, ' We must have a party to celebrate this' = He said that they must have a party to celebrate it.

Bmust used for obligation can remain unchanged. Alternatively it can be reported by would

have to or had to.

1 I/we must reported by would have to

would have to is used when the obligation depends on some future action, or when the fulfilment of the obligation appears remote or uncertain, i.e. when must is clearly replaceable by will have to:

'If the floods get worse we must (will have to) leave the house,' he said =

If e said that if the floods got worse they would have to leave the

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house.

'When it stops snowing we must start digging ourselves out,' I said =

I said that when it stopped snowing we would have to start digging ourselves out.

'We must mend the roof properly next year,' he said =

He said that they would have to mend the roof properly the following year.

7 have just received a letter,' he said. 'I must go home' =

He said that he had just received a letter and would have to go home- (But had to would be more usual here if he went at once, i.e. had to'would imply that he went at once.)

2 I/we must reported by had to

had to is the usual form for obligations where times for fulfilment have been fixed, or plans made, or when the obligation is fulfilled fairly promptly, or at least by the time the speech is reported:

He said, 'I must wash my hands' (and presumably did so) = He said that he had to wash his hands.

Tom said, 'I must be there by nine tomorrow' = { Tom said that he had to be there by nine the next day. ^would have to would be possible here also but would imply that the ^obligation was self-imposed and that no outside authority was involved, ; had to could express either an outside authority (i.e. that someone had ; told him to be there) or a self-imposed obligation. HAH difficulties about had to/would have to can of course be avoided ,:jby keeping must unchanged. In both the above examples must could '''have been used instead of had to/would have to.

you/he/they must is reported similarly: He said. 'You must start at once' =

He said that she must/had to/would have to start at once. But note that would have to removes the idea of the speaker's authority:

Tom said. 'I/you want to stay on here you must work harder' =

Twn said that if she wanted to stay on she must/would have to work harder.

must implies that Tom himself insists on her working harder, would have to merely implies that this will be necessary.

must I/you/he? can change similarly but as must in the interrogative usually concerns the present or immediate future it usually becomes had to:

'Must you go so soon?' I said = I asked him if he had to go so soon. gfaust not

must not usually remains unchanged, you/he must not remains

.pichanged or is expressed as a negative command (see 320-1):

He said, 'You mustn't tell anyone' = f:- He said that she mustn 't ell/wasn 't to tell anyone

or

He told her not to tell anyone. ',, needn't

needn't can remain unchanged and usually does. Alternatively it can i,change to didn't have to/wouldn't have to just as must changes to

•had to/would have to:

He said. 'You needn't wait' = He said that I needn't wait.

I said, 'If you can lend me the money I needn 't go to the bank = i; / said that if he could lend me the money I needn 't/wouldn 't have to

go to the bank.

He said, '1 needn't be in the office till ten tomorrow morning' •=

He said that he needn't/didn't have to be in the office till ten the next ! morning. "need I/you/he? behaves exactly in the same ways as must I/you/he? ; i.e. it normally becomes had to:

'Need I finish my pudding?' asked the small boy = ^ The small boy asked if he had to finish his pudding.

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32 Conjunctions

326Co-ordinating conjunctions: and, but, both . . . and, or, either ... or, neither . . . nor, not only . .

. but also

These join pairs of nouns/adjectives/adverbs/verbs/phrases/clauses: He plays squash and rugby.

I make the payments and keep the accounts. He works quickly and/but accurately.

He is small but strong. She is intelligent but lazy. We came in first but (we) didn't win the race.

Both men and women were drafted into the army. Ring Tom or Bill. She doesn 't smoke or drink. He can't (either) read or write.

You can (either) walk up or take the cable car. He can neither read nor write.

Not only men but also women were chosen.

327besides, however, nevertheless, otherwise, so, therefore, still, yet, though

These adverbs/conjunctions can join clauses or sentences and are then often known as 'conjuncts'. But they can also, with the exception of nevertheless and therefore (conjunctions), be used in other ways and sometimes as other parts of speech. Their position will vary according to how they are used-

A besides (preposition) means 'in addition to'. It precedes a noun/pronoun/gerund: Besides doing the cooking I look after the garden. besides (adverb) means 'in addition'. It usually precedes the clause it introduces, but can follow it:

I can't go now; I'm too busy. Besides, my passport is out of date. moreover could replace besides here in more formal English. anyway or in any case could be used here in more informal English:

Anyway, my passport's out of date.

B however (adverb of degree, see 41) precedes its adjective/adverb:

You couldn't earn much, however hard you worked. however (conjunction) usually means 'but'. It can precede or follow its clause or come after the first word or phrase:

I'll offer it to Tom. However, he may not want it or

He may 'not want it however or Tom, however, may not want it or If, however, he doesn't want it. . .

' But when two contrasting statements are mentioned, however can t; mean'but/nevertheless/all the same':

They hadn 't trained hard, but/however/nevertheless/all the same they won or they won, however/nevertheless/all the same, (See also 329.)

.• otherwise (adverb) usually comes after the verb:

It must be used in a well-ventilated room. Used otherwise it could be harmful. otherwise (conjunction) means 'if not/or else':

We must be early; otherwise we won't get a seat. or could also be used here in colloquial English;

We must be early or (else) see won't get a seat.

so (adverb of degree) precedes its adjective/adverb:

I was so hot that. . . They ran so fast that. . . so (conjunction) precedes its clause: Our cases were heavy, so we look a taxi.

therefore (conjunction) can be used instead of so in formal English. It can come at the beginning of the clause or after the first word or phrase; or before the main verb:

There is fog at Heathrow; the plane, therefore, has been diverted/the plane has therefore been diverted/therefore the plane has been diverted.

••• still and yet can be adverbs of time (see 37):

The children are still up. They haven't had supper yet. '•' still and yet (conjunctions) come at the beginning of the clauses they introduce.

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still (conjunction) means 'admitting that/nevertheless'. yet (conjunction) means 'in spite of that/all the same/nevertheless'. You aren 't rich; still, you could do something to help him. They are ugly and expensive; yet people buy them.

though/although normally introduce clauses of concession (see 340):

Though/Although they're expensive, people buy them. though (but not although) can also be used to link two main clauses. though used in this way means 'but' or 'yet' and is placed sometimes at the beginning but more often at the end of its clause:

He says he 'II pay, though I don't think he will or He says he 'II pay; I don 'f think he will, though.

328Subordinating conjunctions: if, that, though/although, unless, when etc.

Subordinating conjunctions introduce subordinate adverb or noun clauses and are dealt with in the chapters on the different types of clause.

See chapter 21 for conditional clauses, chapter 33 for purpose clauses chapter 34 for adverb clauses of reason, result, concession, comparison and time, and chapter 35 for noun clauses.

Some conjunctions have more than one meaning and may introduce more than one type of clause.

Pairs and groups of conjunctions which are sometimes confused with each other or with other parts of speech are dealt with below.

329 though/although and in spite of (preposition phrase), despite (preposition)

Two opposing or contrasting statements, such as He had no qualifications and He got the job, could be combined as follows:

A With but, however or nevertheless as shown in 327 above: He had no qualifications but he got the job.

He had no qualifications; however he got the Job/he got the job, however.

He had no qualifications; nevertheless he got the job. B With though/although:

He got the job although he had no qualifications. Although he had no qualifications he got the job.

C With in spite of/despite + noun/pronoun/gerund:

In spite of'having no qualifications he got the job. He got the job in spite of having no qualifications.

despite = in spite of. It is chiefly used in newspapers and in formal English: Despite the severe weather conditions all the cars completed the

course.

D Note that though/although requires subject + verb: Although it was windy . . .

and that in spite of/despite requires noun/pronoun or gerund: In spite a/the wind . . .

Some more examples:

Although it smelt horrible . . . = In spite of the horrible smell. . . Although it was dangerous . . .

= In spite of the danger . . . Though he was inexperienced . . . = In spite of his inexperience/his being inexperienced . . .

330for and because

These conjunctions have nearly the same meaning and very often either can be used. It is, however, safer to use because, as a clause introduced by for (which we will call a 'forclause') has a more restricted use than a clause introduced by because:

1 A for-clause cannot precede the verb which it explains: Because it was wet he took a taxi. (for is not possible.)

2 A for-clause cannot be preceded by not, but or any conjunction:

He stole, not because he wanted the money but because he liked stealing. (for not possible)

3 A for-clause cannot be used in answer to a question:

Why did you do it? ~ I did it because I was angry. (for not possible)

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4 A for-clause cannot be a mere repetition of what has been already stated, but always includes some new piece of information:

He spoke in French. She was angry because he had spoken in

French, (for is not possible.) But She was angry, for she didn 't know French. (Here for is correct;

because is also possible.)

The reason for these restrictions is that a for-clause does not tell us why a certain action was performed, buE merely presents a piece of additional information which helps to explain it. Some examples of for-clauses:

The days wereshort, for it was now December. He took the food eagerly, for he had eaten nothing since dawn. When I saw her in the river I was frightenedFor at that point the currents were dangerous.

In speech a short pause is usually made before a for-clause and in written English this place is usually marked by a comma, and sometimes, as in the last example above, by a full stop. because could be used in the above sentences also, though for is better.

331 when, while, as used to express time

A when is used, with simple tenses:

1 When one action occurs at the same time as another or in the span of another:

When it is wet the buses are crowded.

When we lived in town we often went to the theatre.

2 When one action follows another:

When she pressed the button the lift stopped.

Bas is used:

When the second action occurs before the first is finished:

As / left the house I remembered the key.

This implies that I remembered the key before I had completed the action of leaving the house; I was probabiy still in the doorway. While I was leaving would have the same meaning here, but When I left would give the impression that the act of leaving was complete and the door shut behind me.

2 For parallel actions: He sang as he worked.

3 For parallel development:

As the sun rose the fog dispersed.

As it grew darker if became colder = The darker it grew, the colder it became. As she came to know him better she relied on him more.

As he became more competent he was given more interesting work.

If we used when here we would lose all idea of simultaneous progression or development. 4 To mean while (= during the time that):

As he stood there he saw two men enter the bar.

But there is no particular advantage in using as here, and while is safer.

332 as meaning when/while or because/since

A Restricted use of as (= when/while)

as here is chiefly used with verbs indicating action or development. It is not normally used with the type of verb listed in 168, except when there is an idea of development, as in B3 above. Nor is it normally used with verbs such as live, stay, remain.

B as used with the above verbs/types of verb normally means because/since;

As he was tired . . . = Because he was tired . . .

As he knew her well. . . = Because he knew her well. . .

As it contains alcohol. . . = Since/Because it contains alcohol. . .

As he lives near here . . . = Since/Because he lives . . .

C With most verbs, as can be used with either meaning:

As/While he shaved he thought about the coming interview.

As/Because he shaved with a blunt razor he didn't make a very good job of it.

If in doubt here, students should use while or because.

D as + noun can mean either when/while or because/since:

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As a student he had known great poverty = When he was a student he had known great poverty.

As a student he gets/got in for half price = Because he is/was a student he gets/got in . . .

As a married man, he has to think of his family = Because/Since he is a married man . . .

as meaning when/while here is usually followed by a perfect tense. as meaning because/since can be followed by any tense.

as, when, while used to mean although, but, seeing that

as can mean though/although but only in the combination adjective + as + subject + to be/to seem/to appear:

Tired as he was he offered to carry her = Though he was tired he offered to carry her. Strong as he was, he couldn't lift it.

while can mean but and is used to emphasize a contrast:

'At sea' means 'on a ship', while 'at the sea' means 'at the seaside'. Some people waste food while others haven't enough.

while can also mean although and is then usually placed at the beginning of a sentence:

While I sympathize with your point of view I cannot accept it.

when can mean seeing that/although. It is therefore very similar to while, but is chiefly used to introduce a statement which makes another action seem unreasonable. It is often, though not necessarily, used with a question:

How can you expect your children to be truthful when you yourself tell lies? It's not fair to expect her to do all the cooking when she has had no training or experience.

Do not confuse when and if

When he comes implies that we are sure he will come. If he comes implies that we don't know whether he will come or not. (For if in conditional sentences, see chapter 21.)

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33

Purpose

334

Purpose is normally expressed by the infinitive

Purpose can be expressed by:

A The infinitive alone:

He went to France to learn French. They stopped to ask the way. When there is a personal

object of the main verb, the infinitive may refer to this and not to the subject:

He sen! Tom to the shop Co buy bread. (Tom was to buy the bread.)

E

in order or so as + infinitive

in order + infinitive can imply either that the subject wants to perform the action or that he wants it to happen.

so as + infinitive implies only that the subject wants the action to happen, in order is, therefore, the more generally useful,

in order or so as are used:

1With a negative infinitive to express a negative purpose: He left his gun outside in order/so as not to frighten us.

2With to be and to have:

She left work early in order/so as to be at home when he arrived. She gave up work in order/so as to have more time with the children.

3 When the purpose is less immediate:

He is studying mathematics in order/so as to qualify/or a better job. She learnt typing in order to help her husband with his work.

4Sometimes in longer sentences, to emphasize that the infinitive indicates purpose: He was accused of misrepresenting the facts in order/so as to make

the scheme seem feasible.

He took much more trouble over the figures than he usually did in

order/so as to show his new boss what a careful worker he was. (But in order/so as is not essential and is often omitted.) When the infinitive of purpose precedes the main verb, in order/so as may be placed first:

In order/So as to show his boss what a careful worker he was, he

took extra trouble over the figures. (But here also in order/so as may be omitted.)

5When there is a personal object but we want the infinitive to refer unambiguously to the subject:

He sent his sons to a boarding school in order/so as to have some peace. (He, not his sons, was going to have some peace.) Compare with:

He sent his sons to a boarding school to team to live in a community.

(Not he but his sons were to learn to live in a community.) But this in order/so as construction is not very common. It is more usual to say:

He sent his sons to a boarding school because he wanted to have some peace.

in order (but not so as), used to emphasize that the subject really had this purpose in mind:

He bought diamonds when he was in Amsterdam! ~ That wasn't surprising. He went to Amsterdam in order to buy diamonds, (not for any other purpose)

We could also, however, express^this idea by stressing the first verb and omitting in order: He 'went to Amsterdam to buy diamonds. Infinitive + noun + preposition:

/ want a case to keep my records in.

I need a corkscrew to open this bottle with. Note that here we are talking about a particular purpose. For a general purpose we use for + gerund:

This is a case for keeping records in.

A corkscrew is a tool for opening bottles.

335Infinitives of purpose after go and come

It is not normal to use an infinitive of purpose after the imperative or infinitive of go and come. Instead of Go to find Bill we normally say Go and find Bill; and instead of Come to talk to Ann

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we say Come and talk to Ann; i.e. instead of an imperative + an infinitive of purpose we use two imperatives Joined by and. And instead of:

I must go to help my mother and I'll come to check the accounts we normally say:

I must go and help my mother and I'll come and check the accounts. i.e. instead of an infinitive + an infinitive of purpose we use two infinitives joined by and (see 246 I).

But when go and come are used as gerunds or in any present or past tense they take the ordinary infinitive of purpose:

I'm thinking of going to look for mushrooms. I went to help my mother.

I've come to check the accounts.

I didn 't come to talk to Bill; I came to talk to you.

336Clauses of purpose

Clauses are necessary when the person to whom the purpose refers is different from the subject of the main clause, or when the original subject is stated again:

Ships carry lifeboats so that the crew can escape if the ship sinks. This knife has a cork handle so that if will float if it falls overboard.

A Purpose clauses are usually expressed by so that + will/would or can/could + infinitive. can/could is used here to mean will/would be able to:

They make £10 notes a different size from £5 notes so that blind people can (= wil! be able to) tell the difference between them. They wrote the notices in several languages so that foreign tourists could (= would be able to) understand them. can and will are used when the main verb is in a present, present perfect or future tense; could and would are used when the main verb is in a past tense. See the examples above and also:

/ light/am lighting/have lit/will light the fire so that the house will be warm when they return. I have given/will give him a key so that he can get into the house whenever he likes.

I pinned the note to his pillow so that he would be sure to see it. There were telephone points every kilometre so that drivers whose cars had broken down would be able to/could summon help. If that is omitted from purpose clauses with can/could, the idea of purpose may disappear. The sentence He took my shoes so that I couldn't leave the house would normally mean 'He took my shoes to prevent my leaving etc.' but He took my shoes, so I couldn 't leave the house would normally mean 'He took my shoes; therefore I wasn't able to leave'.

B Purpose clauses can also be formed by so that/in order that/that + may/might or shall/should + infinitive. These are merely more formal constructions than those shown in A above. There is no difference in meaning.

Note that so that can be followed by will/can/may/shall or their past forms, while in order that or that are limited to may/shall or their past forms.

that used alone is rarely found except in very dramatic speech or writing, or in poetry.

The rules about sequences of tenses are the same as those shown above. The following are very formal:

We carved their names on the stone so that/in order that future generations should/might know what they had done. These men risk their lives so that/in order that we may live more safely.

may in the present tense is much more comman than shall, which is rarely used. In the past tense either might or should can be used. The student should know the above forms but should not normally need to use them, as for all ordinary purposes so that + can/could or will/would should be quite sufficient.

C Negative purpose clauses are made by putting the auxiliary verb (usually will/would or should) into the negative:

He wrote his diary in code so that his wife wouldn 't be able to read it-He changed his name so that his new friends wouldn Vshouidn 't know that he had once been accused of murder.

Criminals usually telephone from public telephone boxes so that the police won't be able to trace the call.

Negative purpose clauses can, however, usually be replaced bv to prevent + noun/pronoun + gerund, or to avoid + gerund-

He dyed his beard so that we shouldn 't recognize him/to prevent us recognizing him/to avoid being recognized, (passive gerund) She always shopped in another village so that she

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wouldn 'i meet her own neighbours/to avoid meeting her own neighbours. These infinitive phrases are preferred to negative purpose clauses.

337 in case and lest

Ain case

in case + subject + verb can follow a statement or command:

I don't let him climb trees in case he tears his trousers. This first action is usually a preparation for, or a precaution against, the action in the if-clause, which is a possible future action.

in case + present tense normally has the meaning 'because this may happen/because perhaps this will happen' or 'for fear that this may happen'-

in case + past tense normally means 'because this might happen/because perhaps this would happen' or 'for fear that this would happen'.

Both present tense and past tense here can be replaced by should + infinitive. should used here would express greater improbability, but this construction is not very usual,

BTenses with in case

Main verb

Future

present tense or Present

+ in case +

.. _( ^

should + infinitive Present perfect J

Conditional

1

(

. ,

past tense or

Past tense

+ in case +

n .

,

should + infinitive

Past perfect

;

I'll make a cake in case someone drops in at the weekend.

I carry a spare wheel in case I have/should have a puncture.

I always keep candles in the house in case there is a power cut.

I always kept candies in the house in case there was a power cut. (See also 227.) lest means 'for fear that' and is followed by should:

He doesn't/didn't dare to leave the house lest someone should recognize him. lest is rarely found except in formal written English.

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34 Clauses of reason, result, concession, comparison, time

338 Clauses of reason and result/cause

Except for the type shown in A2 and A3 below, both these clauses can be introduced by as or because. But as is safer for clauses of reason (see A below) and because is safer for clauses of result/cause (see B).

AClauses of reason

1 Introduced by as/because/since;

We camped there as/because/since it was too dark to go on. As/Because/Since it was too dark to go on, we camped there.

2 'in view of the fact that' can be expressed by as/since/seeing that, but not because: As/Since/Seeing that you are here, you may as well give me a hand. As/Since/Seeing that Tom knows French, he 'd better do the talking.

3 Where as/since/seeing that refers to a statement previously made or understood, it is replaceable by if:

As/Since/Seeing that/If you don't like Bill, why did you invite him? Note the use of if so:

I hope Bill won't come. ~ Ifso (= If you hope he won't come), why did you invite him? For if + so/not, see 347.

BClauses of result/cause (see also 339) are introduced by because or as: The fuse blew because we had overloaded the circuit.

He was angry because we were late.

As it/rose hard that night there was ice everywhere next day. As the soup was very salty we were thirsty afterwards.

CThese combinations could also be expressed by two main clauses Joined by so: It was too dark to go on, so we camped there.

You are here, so you may as well give me a hand.

It froze hard that night, so there was ice everywhere next day. therefore can also be used. but is normal only in fairly formal sentences:

The Finnish delegate has not yet arrived. We are therefore postponing/We have therefore decided to postpone/Therefore we are postponing the meeting. (Notice possible positions of therefore.)

339 Clauses of result with such/so . . . that

Asuch is an adjective and is used before an adjective + noun:

They had such a fierce dog that no one dared to go near their house. He spoke for such a long time that people began to fall asleep.

Bso is an adverb and is used before adverbs and with adjectives which are not followed by their nouns:

The snow fell so fast that our footsteps were soon covered up. His speech went on for so long thai people began to fall asleep. Their dog was so fierce that no one dared come near it.

But such is never used before much and many. so so is used even when much and many are followed by nouns:

There was so much dust that we couldn't see what was happening. So many people

complained that they took the programme off.

C Note that such + a + adjective + noun is replaceable by so + adjective + a + noun, so that 'such a good man" is replaceable by 'so good a man'. This is only possible when a noun is preceded by a/an. It is not a very usual form but may be met in literature. Sometimes for emphasis so is placed at the beginning of the sentence. It is then followed by the inverted form of the verb (see 45):

So terrible was the storm that whole roofs were ripped off.

340Clauses of concession

These are introduced by although, though (see 327, 329), even though, even if, no matter, however (see 85) and sometimes by whatever, as is also possible, but only in the adjective + as + be construction.

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Although/Though/Even though/Even if you don't like him you can still be polite. No matter what you do, don't touch this switch.

However rich people are, they always seem anxious to make more money. However carefully you drive, you will probably have an accident eventually. Whatever you do, don't tell him that I told you this.

Patient as he was, he had no intention of waiting for three hours.

(though he was patient) may + infinitive can be used in hypothetical cases:

However frightened you may tie yourself, you must remain outwardly calm. may can also imply 'I accept the fact that':

But he's your brother! ~ He may be my brother but I don't trust him!

But may used in this way is part of another main clause, not a clause of concession. should + infinitive can be used after even if just as it can after if in conditional sentences, to express the idea that the action expressed by the infinitive is not very likely to take place;

Even if he should find out he won't do anything about it.

341 Clauses of comparison

A Comparisons with adjectives and finite verbs (see also 20-2);

It's darker today than it was yesterday.

He doesn'I Ray as much tax as we do/as us. He spends more than he earns.

Note that + adjective, a colloquial form:

Will it cost £1W? ~ No, it won't cost as much as (ail) that. It won't

be (alt) that expensive. (It won't be as expensive as that.) that + adjective is sometimes used colloquially to mean very.

B Comparisons with adverbs and finite verbs (see also 31-4):

He didn't play as well as we expected/as well as you (did). He sings more loudly than anyone I've ever heard/than anyone else (does). You work harder than he does/than him/than I did at your age.

CComparisons with adjectives and infinitives or gerunds

Often either can be used, but the infinitive is more usual for a particular action, and gerunds are more usual for genera! statements (see also E below):

It's sometimes as cheap to buy a new one as (it is) (to) repair the old one.

Buying a new one is sometimes as cheap as repairing the old one.

He found that lying on She beach was just as boring as sitting in his office or

He found lying on the beach just as boring as sitting etc. (The infinitive would be less usual here.)

He thinks it (is) safer to drive himself than (to) let me drive. He thinks that driving himself is safer than letting me drive. It will soon be more difficult to get a visa than it is now.

Getting a visa will soon be more difficult than it is now.

D In comparisons of the type shown in C above, if we have an infinitive before as/than we will usually have an infinitive (not a gerund) after it, Similarly, if we have a gerund before as/than we will normally have a gerund (not an infinitive) after it. See examples above, But if we have a finite verb + this/that/which before as/than we can have a gerund after it. An infinitive is possible but would be much less usual:

I’ll deliver it by hand; this will be cheaper than posting it. He cleaned his shoes, which was better than doing nothing.

E Infinitives are used with would rather/sooner (see 297-8):

Most people would rather work than starve. I would resign rather than accept him as a partner.

342 Time clauses

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A These are introduced by conjunctions of time such as:

after

immediately

till/until

as

no sooner . . . than

when

as soon as

since

whenever

before

the sooner

while

hardly . . . when

They can also be introduced by the minute, the moment. For examples with when, as, while, see 331-3.

For examples with before, see 195 B.

B Remember that we do not use a future form, or a conditional tense, in a time clause.

Each of the following future forms becomes a present tense when we put it in a time clauseFuture simple:

You 'II be back soon. I'll stay till then. = I'll stay till you get back. be going to:

The parachutist is going to jump. Soon after he jumps his parachute will open.

The present continuous, used as a future form, and the future continuous: He's arriving/He 'II be arriving at six but

When he arrives he'll tell us all about the match.

Before he arrives I'll give the children their tea. But the continuous tense can, of course, be used in time clauses when it indicates a continuous action:

Peter and John will be playing/are playing/are going to play tennis tonight. While they are playing (during this time) we 'II go to the beach.

The future perfect changes to the present perfect, and the future perfect continuous changes to the present perfect continuous:

I'll have finished in the bathroom in a few minutes.

The moment/As soon as I have finished I'll give you a call. A conditional tense changes to a past tense:

We knew that he would arrive/would be arriving about six. We knew that till he arrived nothing would be done.

But when when introduces a noun clause it can be followed by a future or conditional tense: He said. 'When will the train get in?' =

He asked when the train would get in.

CClauses with since (see also 187-8)

In clauses since is usually followed by perfect tenses (but see 188);

They 've moved house twice since they got married or Since they got married, they 've moved house twice. He said he'd lived in a tent since his house burnt down. It's ages since I sailed/have sailed a boat. I haven't sailed a boat since I left college.

DClauses with after

In clauses after is often followed by perfect tenses:

After/When he had rung off I remembered. . .

After/When you 've finished with it, hang it up.

Ehardly/scarcely . . . when, no sooner . . . than (see also 45) The performance had hardly begun when the lights went out or Hardly had the performance begun when the lights went out.

scarcely could replace hardly here but is less usual,

He had no sooner drunk the coffee than he began to feel drowsy or No sooner had he drunk the coffee than he began to feel drowsy. He no sooner earns any money than he spends it or Immediately he earns any money he spends it. (more colloquial)

Note also the sooner . . . the sooner:

The sooner we start, the sooner we'll be there.

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35 Noun clauses

Noun clauses are very often introduced by that and are therefore often called that-clauses. However, not all noun clauses are that-clauses.

343 Noun clauses (that-clauses) as subject of a sentence

A Sentences with noun clause subjects usually begin with it (see 67 D):

It is disappointing that Tom can't come.

'that Tom can't come' is the subject.

B The usual construction is it + be/seem + adjective + noun clause (see 26-7):

It’s splendid that you passed your exam.

It's strange that there are no lights on.

Some adjectives require or can take that . . . should (see 236):

It is essential that everybody knows/should know what to do.

An alternative construction is it + be/seem + a + noun + noun clause. Nouns that can be used here include mercy, miracle, nuisance, pity, shame, relief, wonder, a good thing is also possible.

It's a great pity (that) they didn't get married. It's a wonder (that) you weren't killed.

It's a good thing (thai) you were insured.

I that-clauses after certain adjectives/participles

The construction here is subject + be + adjective/past participle + noun clause:

I am delighted that you passed your exam.

This construction can be used with

(a)adjectives expressing emotion: glad, pleased, relieved, sorry (see 26 P)

(b)adjectives/participles expressing anxiety, confidence etc.: afraid, anxious, aware, certain, confident, conscious, convinced (see 27). anxious requires that . . . should.

I'm afraid that I can't come till next week.

Are you certain that this is the right road?

345that-clauses after certain nouns

A that-clause can be placed after a large number of abstract nouns. The most useful of these are: allegation, announcement, belief, discovery, fact, fear, guarantee, hope, knowledge, promise, proposal, report, rumour, suggestion, suspicion, proposal and

suggestion require that . . . should,

The announcement that a new airport was to be built nearby aroused immediate opposition.

The proposal/suggestion that shops should open on Sundays led to a heated discussion.

A report that the area was dangerous was ignored by the residents.

346 Noun clauses as objects of verbs

A that-clauses are possible after a large number of verbs. Some of the most useful are given below.

acknowledge

find (wh)

recommend

admit

forget (wh)

remark

advise

guarantee

remember (wh)

agree

happen

remind

allege

hear (wh)

request

announce

hope

resolve

appear

imagine (wh)

reveal (wh)

arrange (wh)

imply

say (wh)

ask (wh)

indicate (wh)

see (wh)

assume

inform

seem

assure

insist

show (wh)

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beg

know (wh)

state (wh)

believe (wh)

leam

stipulate

command

make out (= state)

suggest (wh)

confess

mean

suppose

consider (wh)

notice (wh)

teach

declare

observe

tell (wh)

decide (wh)

occur to + object

think (wh)

demand

order

threaten

demonstrate

perceive

turn out

determine

presume

understand (wh)

discover

pretend

urge

doubt

promise

vow

estimate (wh)

propose

warn

expect

prove (wh)

wish

fear

realize (wh)

wonder (wh)

feel

recognize

and other verbs of communication, e.g. complain, deny, explain etc. (see 316 C).

wh: see E below.

Examples

They alleged/made out that they had been unjustly dismissed. He assumes that we agree with him. I can prove that she did it.

Most of the above verbs can also take another construction (see chapters 23-6). Note however that a verb + that-ctause does not necessarily have the same meaning as the same verb + infinitive/gerund/present participle: He saw her answering the letters means 'He watched her doing this' but He saw that she answered the letters could mean either 'He noticed that she did this' or 'He made sure by supervision that she did this'.

C appear, happen, occur, seem, turn out require it as subject:

It appears/seems that we have come on the wrong day. If occurred to me that he might be lying.

It turned out that nobody remembered the address.

D that + subject + should can be used after agree, arrange, be anxious, beg, command, decide, demand, determine, be determined, order, resolve and urge instead of an infinitive construction, and after insist and suggest instead of a gerund:

They agreed/decided that a statue should be put up. He urged that the matter should go to arbitration.

He suggested that a reward should be offered. (See 235, 302 E.)

Verbs in section A marked '(wh)' can also be followed by noun clauses beginning with wh-words: what, when, where, who, why, or with how:

He asked where he was to go.

They'll believe whatever you tell them. I forget who told me this.

Have you heard how he is getting on? I can't think why he left his wife.

I wonder when he will pay me back.

347 so and not representing a that-clause

A After believe, expect, suppose, think and after it appears/seems:

Will Tom be at the party? -- I expect so/suppose so/think so = I think he will.

For the negative we use: A negative verb with so:

Will the scheme be a success? ~ I don't believe so/expect so/suppose so/think so. Are they making good progress? ~ It doesn't seem so.

2Or an affirmative verb with not:

It won't take long, will it? ~ No, I suppose not or I don't suppose so.

The plane didn't land in Calcutta, did it? ~ I believe not or I don't believe so.

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B so and not can be used similarly after hope and be afraid (= be sorry to say):

Is Peter coming with us? ~ I hope so.

Will you have to Ray duly on this? ~ I'm afraid so.

The negative here is made with an affirmative verb + not: Have you got a work permit? ~ I'm afraid not.

C so and not can be used after say and tell + object:

How do you know there is going to be a demonstration? ~ Jack said so/Jack told me so.

I told you so! can mean 'I told you that this was the case/that this would happen'. This usually annoys the person addressed. For tell the only negative form is negative verb + so:

Tom didn't tell me so.

For say there are two negative forms, but the meaning is not the same:

Tom didn't say so = Tom didn't say that there would be a demonstration. Tom said not = Tom said there wouldn't be a demonstration.

Dif + so/not

so/not after if can replace a previously mentioned/understood subject + verb:

Will you be staying another night? If so (= If you are), we can give you a better room. If not (= If you aren't), could you be out of your room by 12:00?

if so/not here usually represents a clause of condition as shown above, but for if so, see also 338 A.

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36

Numerals, dates, and weights and measures

348

Cardinal numbers (adjectives and pronouns)

1 one

11 eleven

21 twenty-one

31 thirty-one etc.

2 two

12 twelve

22 twenty-two

40 forty

3 three

13 thirteen

23 twenty-three

50 fifty

4 four

14 fourteen

24 twenty-four

60 sixty

5 five

15 fifteen

25 twenty-five

70 seventy

6 six

16 sixteen

26 twenty-six

80 eighty

7 sewn

17 seventeen

27 twenty-seven

90 ninety

8 eight

18 eighteen

28 twenty-eight

100 a hundred

9 nine

19 nineteen

29 twenty-nine

1,000 a thousand

10 ten

20 twenty

30 thirty

1,000,000 a million

400 four hundred

140 a/one hundred and forty

1,006 a/one thousand and six

5,000 five thousand

260,127 two hundred and sixty thousand, one hundred and twenty-seven

349 Points to notice about cardinal numbers

AWhen writing in words, or reading, a number composed of three or more figures we place and before the word denoting tens or units:

713 seven hundred and thirteen

5,102 five thousand, one hundred and two but

6,100 six thousand, one hundred (no tens or units) and is used similarly with hundreds of thousands:

320,410 three hundred and twenty thousand, four hundred and ten and hundreds of millions: 303.000,000 three hundred and three million

Ba is more usual than one before hundred, thousand, million etc, when these numbers stand alone or begin an expression:

100 a hundred 1,000 a thousand

100,000 a hundred thousand

We can also say a hundred and one, a hundred and two etc. up to a hundred and ninety-nine and a thousand and one etc. up to a thousand and ninety-nine. Otherwise we use one, not a (see above). So:

1,040 a/one thousand and forty but

1,140 one thousand, one hundred and forty

C The words hundred, thousand, million and dozen. when used of a definite number, are never

made plural:

six hundred men ten thousand pounds

two dozen eggs If however, these words are used

loosely, merely to convey the idea of a large number, they must be made plural:

hundreds of people thousands of birds

dozens of times Note also that in this case the

preposition of is placed after hundreds, thousands etc.

of is not used with definite numbers except before the/them/ these/those or possessives: so: of the blue ones ten of these four of Tom's brothers

D Numbers composed of four or more figures are divided into groups of three as shown above. Decimals are indicated by '•', which is read 'point':

10.92 ten point nine two

A zero after a decimal point is usually read 'nought':

8.04 eight point nought four

But 'o' and 'zero' would also be possible.

350 Ordinal numbers (adjectives and pronouns)

first

eleventh

twenty-first

thirty-first etc.

second

twelfth

twenty-second

fortieth

third

thirteenth

twenty-third

fiftieth

fourth

fourteenth

twenty-fourth

sixtieth

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twenty-first = 21st

fifth

fifteenth

twenty-fifth

seventieth

sixth

sixteenth

twenty-sixth

eightieth

seventh

seventeenth

twenty-seventh

ninetieth

eighth

eighteenth

twenty-eighth

hundredth

ninth

nineteenth

twenty-ninth

thousandth

tenth

twentieth

thirtieth

millionth

When writing in words or reading fractions other than ½ (a half) and ¼ (a quarter), we use a combination of cardinal and ordinal numbers:

1/5 a/one fifth 1/10 a/one tenth (a is more usual than one) 3/5 three fifths 7/10 seven tenths

A whole number + a fraction can be followed directly by a plural noun: 2 ¼ miles == two and a quarter miles

½ (half) can be followed directly by a noun but other fractions require of before a noun: half a second but a quarter of a second (See also 2 E.)

half + of can also be used, but the of is optional:

Half (of) my earnings go in tax.

351 Points to notice about ordinal numbers

A Notice the irregular spelling of fifth, eighth, ninth and twelfth.

B When ordinal numbers are expressed in figures the last two letters of the written word must

be added (except in dates): first = 1st

second = 2nd

forty-second = 42nd

third = 3rd

sixty-third = 63rd

fourth = 4th

eightieth = 80th

C In compound ordinal numbers the rule about and is the same as for compound cardinal

numbers: 101st = the hundred and first.

The article the normally precedes ordinal numbers:

the sixtieth day

the fortieth visitor

Titles of kings etc. are written in Roman figures:

Charles V James III

Elizabeth II

But in spoken English we use the ordinal numbers preceded by the:

Charles the Fifth

James the Third

Elizabeth the Second

352

Dates

The days of the week

The months of the year

Sunday (Sun.)

January (Jan.)

July

Monday (Mm.)

February (Feb.)

August (Aug.)

Tuesday (Tues.)

March (Mar.)

September (Sept.)

Wednesday (Wed.)

April (Apr.)

October (Oct.)

Thursday (Thurs.)

May

November (Nov.)

Friday (Fri.)

June

December (Dec.)

Saturday (Sat.)

Days and months are always written with capital letters. Dates are expressed by ordinal numbers, so when speaking we say:

March the tenth, July the fourteenth etc. or the tenth of March etc.

They can, however, be written in a variety of ways; e.g. March the tenth could be written:

March 10 10 March

10th of March

March 10th

10th March

March the 10th

BThe year

When reading or speaking we use the term hundred but not thousand. The year 1987 would be read as nineteen hundred and eighty-seven or nineteen eighty-seven.

Years before the Christian era are followed by the letters BC (= Before Christ) and years dating from the Christian era are occasionally preceded by the letters AD (= Anno Domini, in

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the year of the Lord). The former are read in either way: 1500 BC would be read as one thousand five hundred BC or fifteen hundred BC.

353

Weights, length and liquid measure

A

Weights

The English weights table is as follows:

IS ounces (oz.) = 1 pound (Ib.)

14 Rounds

= 1 stow (st.)

8 stone

= 1 hundredweight (cict.)

20 hundredweight = 1 ton

1 pound

== 0-454 kilogram (kg) 2-2 pounds

= 1 kilogram 2.204-6 tbs

= 1

metric tonne

Plurals

ounce, pound and ton can take a in the plural when they are used as nouns, stone and hundredweight do not take s: e.g. we say six

Round of sugar or six pounds of sugar, but ten hundredweight of coal has no alternative.

When used in compound adjectives these terms never take a:

a ten-ton lorry kilo or kilogram usually take s in the plural when used as nouns: two kilos of apples or two kilograms of apples

BLength

The English table of length is as follows:

12 inches (in.) = 1 foot (ft.)

3 feet

= 1 yard (yd.)

1,760 yards

= 1 mile (m.)

1 inch

= 2.54 centimetres (cm)

1 yard

= 0.914 metre (m)

1 mile

= 1.609 kilometres (km)

Plurals

When there is more than one inch/mite/centimetre we normally use the plural form of these words:

one inch, ten inches one mile, four miles one centimetre, five centimetres

When there is more than one foot we can use either foot or feet. feet is the more usual when measuring heights. We can say;

six foot tall or six feet tall two foot long or two feet long When used in compound adjectives the above forms never take the plural form: a two-mile walk, a six-inch ruler.

C

Liquid measure

2 pints (Rt.)

= 1 quart (qt.)

1 pint = 0.568 litre (I)

4 quarts

= 1 gallon (gal.)

1 gallon= 4.55 litres

D Traditionally British measurements have been made in ounces, inches, pints etc. but there is now a gradual move towards the metric system.

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37 Spelling rules

For noun plurals, see also 12. For verb forms, see also 165, 172, 175.

354Introduction

Vowels are: a e i o u

Consonants are: b c d f g h j k l m n p q r s t v w x y z

A suffix is a group of letters added to the end of a word: beauty, beautiful (ful is the suffix.)

355Doubling the consonant

A

Words of one syllable having one vowel and ending in a single consonant double the

consonant before a suffix beginning with a vowel:

hit + ing = hitting

but keep, keeping (two vowels)

knit + ed = knitted

help, helped (two consonants)

run + er = runner

love, lover (ending in a vowel) qu here is considered as one

consonant: quit, quitting. When the final consonant is w, x or y it does not double:

row + ed -= rowed

box + ing = boxing

BTwoor three-syllable words ending in a single consonant following a single vowel double the final consonant when the stress falls on the last syllable. (The stressed syllable is in bold

type.)

acquit + ed = acquitted

but murmur + ed = murmured begin + er -= beginner

answer +

er = answerer deter + ed == deterred

orbit + ing = orbiting recur + ing = recurring

focus + ed, however, can be spelt focused orfocussed and bias + ed can

be spelt biased or biassed.

C The final consonant of handicap, kidnap, worship is also doubled:

handicap, handicapped

worship, worshipped kidnap, kidnapped

DWords ending in 1 following a single vowel or two vowels pronounced separately usually double the 1:

appal, appalled duel, duellist

repel, repellent cruel, cruelly

model, modelling

quarrel, quarrelling dial, dialled

refuel, refuelled

signal, signalled distil, distiller

356 Omission of a final e

A Words ending in e following a consonant drop the e before a suffix beginning with a vowel: believe + er = believer

love + ing = losing move + able = movable

But riye and singe keep their final e before ing to avoid confusion with die and sing: dye, dyeing singe, singeing age keeps its e before ing except in American English: age, ageing

likable can also be spelt likeable. Words ending in ce or ge sometimes retain the e. See 357. B A final e is retained before a suffix beginning with a consonant:

engage, engagement fortunate, fortunately hope. hopeful immediate, immediately

sincere, sincerely But the e m able/ible is dropped in the adverb form:

comfortable, comfortably incredible, incredibly The final e is also dropped in the following words:

argue, argument due, duly

judge, judgement or judgment true, truly whole, wholly (notice the double 1 here)

C Words ending in ee do not drop an e before a suffix:

agree, agreed, agreeing, agreement foresee, foreseeing, foreseeable

357 Words ending in ce and ge

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A

Words ending in ce or ge retain the e before a suffix beginning with a, o or u:

courage, courageous

peace, peaceful

manage, manageable

replace, replaceable

outrage, outrageous

trace, traceable

This is done to avoid changes in pronunciation, because c and g are generally pronounced

soft before e and i, but hard before a, o or u.

B Words ending in ce change the e to i before ous:

grace, gracious

space, spacious

malice, malicious

vice, vicious

358

The suffix ful

When full is added to a word the second l is dropped:

beauty + full = beautiful (but note adverb form beautifully)

use + full = useful (but note adverb form usefully)

If the word to which the suffix is added ends in ll the second I is dropped here also: skill + full

= skilful.

Note full + fill = fulfil.

359

Words ending in y

Words ending in y following a consonant change the y to i before any suffix except ing:

carry + ed = earned

but

carry + ing = carrying

happy + !y = happily

hurry + ing = hurrying

sunny + er = sunnier y following a vowel does not change:

obey + ed = obeyed

play + er = player For plural forms of nouns, see 12.

360ie and ei

The normal rule is that i comes before e except after c:

believe, sieve but deceive, receipt There are however the following exceptions:

beige

feint

heir

reign

their

counterfeit

foreign

inveigh

rein

veil

deign

forfeit

inveigle

seize

vein

eiderdown

freight

leisure

skein

weigh

eight

heifer

neigh

sleigh

weight

either

height

neighbour

sleight weir

feign

heinous

neither

surfeit

weird

361 Hyphens

A Compound words are formed by linking two or more words to make one unit. We can write the compound:

(a)as one word: bystander, hairdresser, teacup

(b)as two or more words: amusement arcade, post office

(c)with a hyphen: launching-pad, lay-by, tooth-brush

It is impossible in most cases to give a firm rule on when a hyphen should be used. When a compound has become familiar through constant use, the hyphen can be omitted: layby, toothbrush. This, however, does not always happen and a native English writer is quite capable of writing toothbrush, tooth brush or tooth-brush at different times.

If the compound is formed of monosyllables, it is more likely to be written as one word. In cases of doubt it is better to omit hyphens or consult a modem dictionary.

B Hyphens are necessary;

(a) when pronunciation or meaning might be unclear without them: co-operate re-cover (= cover again)

(b) when words form a compound in a particular sentence: a do-it-yourself shop

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ago-as-you-please railway ticket

(c)in adjective phrases dealing with age, size, weight and duration of time:

a five-year-old child

a ten-ton vehicle

a six-foot wall

a five-minute interval

Note that the compound is not in the plural form: no s. Adverb/participle compounds used as

adjectives are commonly hyphenated, especially when there is a danger of

misunderstanding:

low-flying aircraft

quick-dissolving sugar

C

Hyphens are used in a temporary way to divide a word at the end of a line. The

division must be made at a natural break in the word, i.e. between syllables;

dis-cauraged

look-ing

inter-val

A monosyllable should not be divided.

31 Indirect speech

307Direct and indirect (or reported) speech

There are two ways of relating what a person has said: direct and indirect. In direct speech we repeat the original speaker's exact words:

He said, 'I have lost my umbrella.'

Remarks thus repeated are placed between inverted commas, and a ' comma or colon is placed immediately before the remark. Direct speech

is found in conversations in books, in plays, and in quotations.

In indirect speech we give the exact meaning of a remark or a speech, without necessarily using the speaker's exact words:

He said (that) he had lost his umbrella.

There is no comma after say in indirect speech. that can usually be omitted after say and tell + object. But it should be kept after other verbs: complain, explain, object, point out, protest etc. Indirect speech is normally used when conversation is reported verbally, though direct speech is sometimes employed here to give a more dramatic effect.

When we turn direct speech into indirect, some changes are usually necessary. These are most easily studied by considering statements, questions, and commands separately.

308Statements in indirect speech: tense changes necessary

A Indirect speech can be introduced by a verb in a present tense: He says that. . . This is usual when we are:

(a)reporting a conversation that is still going on

(b)reading a letter and reporting what it says

(c)reading instructions and reporting them

(d)reporting a statement that someone makes very often, e.g. Tom says that he'll never get married.

When the introductory verb is in a present, present perfect or future tense we can report the direct speech without any change of tense:

PAUL (phoning from the station): I'm trying to get a taxi.

ANN (to Mary, who is standing beside her): Paul says he is trying to get a taxi.

B But indirect speech is usually introduced by a verb in the past tense. Verbs in the direct speech have then to be changed into a corresponding past tense. The changes are shown in the following table. (The that has been omitted in the last five examples.)

Direct speech

Indirect speech

Simple present

Simple past

‘I never ml meat.' he explained

= He explained that he never ate meat.

Present continuous

Past continuous

'I'm waiting/or Ann.' he said

= He said (thai) he was waiting for Ann.

Present perfect

Past perfect

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I have found a flat,' he said Present perfect continuous Hesaid, 'I've been waiting forages' Simple past

I took it home with me,' she said Future

He said, I will/shall be in Paris m Monday'

Future continuous

'I will/shall be using the car myself on the 24th,' she said

But note, Conditional

I said, 7 would/should like to see it'

=He said (that) he had found a flat. Past perfect continuous

=He said he had been waiting for ages. Past perfect

=She said she had taken it home with her. Conditional

=He said he would be in Paris cm

Monday.

Conditional continuous

= She said she'd be using the car herself on the 24th.

Conditional

= I said I would/should like to see it. (No tense change. See also 227.)

CNote on I/we shall/should

'I/we shall' normally becomes he/she/they would in indirect speech:

I shall be 21 tomorrow,' said Bill = Bill said he would be 21 the following day. But if the sentence is reported by the original speaker, 'I/we shall' can become either I/we should or I/we would, would is the more common.

Similarly 'I/we should' usually becomes he/she/they would in indirect speech: 'If I had the instruction manual I should/would know what to do,'

said Bill =

Bill said that if he had the instructions he would know what to do. But if the sentence is reported by the original speaker 'I/we should' can either remain unchanged or be reported by wouldSee last example in B above.

309 Past tenses sometimes remain unchanged

A In theory the past tense changes to the past perfect, but in spoken English it is often left unchanged, provided this can be done without causing confusion about the relative times of the actions. For example, He said. 'I loved her' must become He said he had loved her as otherwise there would be a change of meaning. But He said, 'Ann arrived on Monday' could be reported He said Ann arrived/had arrived on Monday.

B The past continuous tense in theory changes to the past perfect continuous but in practice usually remains unchanged except when it refers to a completed action:

She said, 'We were thinking of selling the house but we have decided not to' =

She said that they had been thinking of selling the house but had decided not to. But He said, 'When I saw them they were playing tennis' = He said that when he saw them they were playing tennis.

C In written English past tenses usually do change to past perfect but there are the following exceptions:

1 Past/Past continuous tenses in time clauses do not normally change: He said, 'When we were living/lived in Paris . . .' =

He said that when they were living in Paris . . . The main verb of such sentences can either remain unchanged or become the past perfect:

He said, 'When we were living/lived in Paris we often saw Paul' = fie said that when they were living/lived in Paris they often saw/had often seen Paul.

2 A past tense used to describe a state of affairs which still exists when the speech is reported remains unchanged:

She said, 'I decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road' = She said that she had decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road.

310 Unreal past tenses (subjunctives) in indirect speech

A Unreal past tenses after wish, would rather/sooner and it is time

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do not change:

'We wish we didn't have to take exams.' said the children = The children said they wished they didn't have to take exams.

'Bill wants to go alone,' said Ann, 'but I'd rather he went with a group' = Ann said that Bill wanted to go alone but that she 'd rather he went with a group.

'It's time we began planning our holidays,' he said = He said that it was time they began planning their holidays.

BI/he/she/we/they had better remains unchanged, you had better can remain unchanged or be reported by advise + object + infinitive (see 120):

'The children had better go to bed early,' said Tom = Tom said that the children had

better go to bed early.

'You'd better not drink the water,' she said = She advised/warned us not to drink the water. C Conditional sentences types 2 and 3 remain unchanged (see 229):

'If my children were older I would emigrate,' he said = He said that if his children were older he would emigrate.

311might, ought to, should, would, used to in indirect statements

A might remains unchanged except when used as a request form:

He said, 'Ann might ring today' = He said that Ann might ring (that day).

But 'You might post these for me' he said = He asked me to post them for him. (See 285 for requests.)

B ought to/should for obligation or assumption remains unchanged:

'They ought to/should widen this road,' I said = I said that they ought to/should widen the

road. I said,

'I should be back by six' (I assume I will be) = I said I should be back by six.

CBut you ought to/you should, if used to express advice rather than obligation, can be reported by advise + object + infinitive, you must can also express advice and be reported similarly. 'You ought to/should/must read the instructions,' said Ann = Ann advised/urged/warned me to read the instructions.

DThe advice form 'Ifl were you I should/would . . .' is normally reported by advise + object + infinitive:

'If I were you I'd wait,'I said = I advised him to waif,

EThe request form 'I should/would be (very) grateful if you would . . .' is normally reported by ask + object + infinitive:

'I'd be very grateful if you 'd keep me informed,' he said = He asked me to keep him informed.

Fwould in statements doesn't change. But see 284 for would in requests etc.

Gused to doesn't change:

'I know the place well because I used to live here,' he explained = He explained thai he knew the place well because he used to live there.

(For could, see 312; for must, see 325.)

312could in indirect statements

(For could interrogative, see 283-4.)

A could for ability

1 could for present ability does not change:

'I can't/couldn't stand on my head.' he said = He said he couldn't stand on his head.

2 could for future ability can remain unchanged or be reported by would be able:

He said, 'I could do it tomorrow' = He said he could do it/would be able to do it the next day.

could in type 2 conditional sentences is reported similarly:

'If I had the tools I could mend it,' he said = He said that if he had the tools he could/would be able to mend it. would be able here implies that the supposition may be fulfilled. (Perhaps he'll be able to borrow tools.)

could in type 3 conditional sentences is reported unchanged.

could for past ability can remain unchanged or be reported by had been able:

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‘I could read when I was three.' she boasted = She boasted that she could/had been able to read when she was three.

Bcould for permission

In type 2 conditional sentences could can remain unchanged or be reported by would be allowed to:

'If I paid my fine I could walk out of prison today,' he said = He said that if he paid his fine he could/would be allowed to walk etc.

could in the past can remain unchanged or be reported by was/were allowed to or had been allowed to:

He said, 'When I was a boy I could stay up as long as I liked' = He said that when he was a boy he could/was allowed to stay up or He said that as a boy he was/had been allowed etc.

313Indirect speech: pronoun and adjective

Pronouns and possessive adjectives usually change from first or second to third person except when the speaker is reporting his own words:

He said, 'I've forgotten the combination of my safe' = He said that he had forgotten the

combination of his safe.

I said, 'I like my new house' = I said that I liked my new house, (speaker reporting his own words)

Sometimes a noun must be inserted to avoid ambiguity: Tom said. 'He cane in through the window' would not normally be reported Tom said he had come in through the window as this might imply that Tom himself had come in this way; but if we use a noun there can be no confusion:

Tom said that the man/burglar/cat etc, had come in . . .

Pronoun changes may affect the verb:

He says. 'I know her' = He says he knows her.

He says, '! shall be there' = He says that he will be there. B this and these

this used in time expressions usually becomes that: He said, 'She is coming this week' =

He said that she was coming that week. Otherwise this and that used as adjectives usually change to the:

He said, 'I bought this pearl/these pearls for my mother' =

He said that he had bought the peart/pearls for his mother. this, these used as pronouns can become it, they/them:

He showed me two bullets. 'I found these embedded in the panelling,' he said =

He said he had found them embedded in the panelling.

He said, 'We will discuss this tomorrow' = He said that they would discuss it/the waiter the next day. this, these (adjectives or pronouns), used to indicate choice or to distinguish some things from others, can become the one(s) near him etc., or the statement can be reworded:

'I'll have this (one),' he said to me = He said he would have the one near him or He pointed to/touched/showed me the one he wanted.

314 Expressions of time and place in indirect speech

A Adverbs and adverbial phrases of time change as follows:

Direct

Indirect

today

that day

yesterday

the day before

the day before yesterday

two days before

tomorrow

the next day/the following day

the day after tomorrow

in two days' time

next week/year etc.

the following week/year etc.

last week/year etc.

the previous week/year etc.

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a year etc. ago

a year before/the previous year

'I saw her the day before yesterday,' he said = He said he'd seen her two days before. 'I'll do it tomorrow,' he promised = He promised that he would do it the next day.

'I'm starting the day after tomorrow, mother.' he said = He told his mother that he was starting in two days' time.

She said, 'My father died a year ago' = She said that her father had died a year before/the previous year.

B But if the speech is made and reported on the same day these time changes are not necessary:

At breakfast this morning he said. ‘I’ll be very busy today' = At breakfast this morning he said that he would be very busy today.

CLogical adjustments are of course necessary if a speech is reported one/two days after it is made. On Monday Jack said to Tom:

I'm leaving the day after tomorrow.

If Tom reports this speech on the next day (Tuesday) he will probably say:

Jack said he was leaving tomorrow.

If he reports it on Wednesday, he will probably say: Jack said he was leaving today.

D here can become there but only when it is clear what place is meant:

At the station he said, ‘I’ll be here again tomorrow' = He said that he 'd be there again the next day.

Usually here has to be replaced by some phrase:

She said, 'You can sit here, Tom' = She told Tom that he could sit beside her etc. But He said, 'Come here, boys' would normally be reported:

He called the boys.

315 Infinitive and gerund constructions in indirect speech

Aagree/refuse/offer/promise/threaten + infinitive can sometimes be used instead of say (that):

ANN: Would you wait half an hour? TOM: All right = Tom agreed to wait or Tom said he would wait.

ANN: Would you lend me another £50?

TOM: No. I won't lend you any more money = Tom refused to lend her any more money or Tom said thai he wouldn't lend etc.

PAUL: I'll help you if you like, Ann = Paul offered to help her or Paul said that he'd help her. (See also shall I?, 318.)

ANN: I'll pay you back next week. Really I will. = Ann promised to pay him back the following

week or

Ann said that she would pay him back or

Ann assured him that she would pay him back.

KIDNAPPERS: If you don't pay the ransom at once we'll kill your daughter = The kidnappers threatened to kill his daughter if he didn 't Ray the ransom at once or The kidnappers said that they would kill etc:

(For object + infinitive constructions, see 320.)

Baccuse . . . of/admit/apologize for/deny/insist on + gerund can sometimes be used instead of say (that):

TOM took the money!' might be reported

He accused me of taking the money. 'I stole/didn't steal it' might be reported I admitted/denied stealing it.

'I'm sorry I'm late,' he said might be reported He apologized for being late or

He said,he was sorry he was tale. BILL: Let me pay/or myself.

TOM: Certainly not! I'll pay! might be reported Tom insisted on paying.

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316 say, tell and alternative introductory verbs

Asay and tell with direct speech

1say can introduce a statement or follow it:

Tom said, 'I've just heard the news' or 'I've just heard the news,' Tom said. Inversion of say and noun subject is possible when say follows the

statement:

'I've just heard the news,' said Tom. say + to + person addressed is possible, but this phrase must follow the direct statement; it cannot introduce it:

'I'm leaving at once,' Tom said to me. Inversion is not possible here.

2tell requires the person addressed:

Tell me. He told us. I'll tell Tom. except with tell lies/stories/the truth, when the person addressed need not be mentioned:

He told (me) lies. I'll tell (you) a story. tell used with direct speech must be placed after the

direct statement:

'I'm leaving at once,' Tom told me. Inversion is not possible with tell.

Bsay and tell with indirect speech

Indirect statements are normally introduced by say, or tell + object. say 4- to + object is possible but much less usual than tell + object:

He said he'd just heard the news.

He told me that he'd just heard the news.

Note also tell . . . how/about:

He told us how he had crossed the mountains. He told us about crossing the mountains.

He told us about his journeys.

(For say and tell with indirect commands, see 320-1.)

Other useful verbs are:

add*

complain*

point out

admit*

deny*

promise*

answer*

explain*

protest*

argue*

grumble*

remark*

assure + object

object*

remind + object

boast*

observe*

reply*

These can be used with direct or indirect speech. With direct speech they follow direct statements;

'It won't cost more,' Tom assured us.

Starred verbs can be inverted, provided the subject is a noun: 'But it will take longer,' Bill objected/objected Bill.

'It'll cost too much,' Jack grumbled/grumbled Jack. They can all introduce indirect statements. that should be placed after the verb:

Tom assured us that it wauldn 't cost more. But Bill objected/pointed out that it would take longer.

D murmur, mutter, shout, stammer, whisper can precede or follow direct statements or questions. With noun subjects the verb can be inverted as shown above:

'You're late,' whispered Tom/Tom whispered.

They can introduce indirect statements, that is usually necessary:

Tom whispered that we were late.

There are, of course, a lot of other verbs describing the voice or the tone of voice, e.g. bark, growl, roar, scream, shriek, snarl, sneer, yell. But these are more common with direct than indirect speech.

317Questions in indirect speech

Direct question: He said, 'Where is she going?' Indirect question: He asked where she was going.

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When we turn direct questions into indirect speech, the following changes are necessary. Tenses, pronouns and possessive adjectives, and adverbs of time and place change as in statements.

The interrogative form of the verb changes to the affirmative form. The question mark (?) is therefore omitted in indirect questions:

He said, 'Where does she live?' = He asked where she lived.

With affirmative verb questions (see 55) this change is obviously not necessary:

'Who lives next door?' he said = He asked who lived next door. 'What happened?' she said = She asked what had happened.

If the introductory verb is .say, it must be changed to avert of inquiry, e.g. ask, inquire, wonder, want to know etc.:

He said, 'Where is the station?' = He asked where the station was.

ask, inquire, wonder can also be used in direct speech. They are then usually placed at the end of the sentence:

'Where is the station?' he inquired.

C ask can be followed by the person addressed (indirect object): Heasked, 'What have you got in your bag?' =

He asked (me) what I had got in my bag. But inquire, wonder, want to know cannot take an indirect object, so if we wish to report a question where the person addressed is mentioned, we must use ask:

He said. 'Mary, when is the next train?' =

He asked Mary when the next train was. If we use inquire, wonder or want to know we must omit Mary.

D If the direct question begins with a question word (when, where, who, how, why etc.) the question word is repeated in the indirect question:

Hesaid, 'Why didn't you put on the brake?' =

He asked (her) why she hadn 'f put on the brake. She said, 'What do you want?' =

She asked (them) what they wanted.

E If there is no question word, if or whether must be used:

7s anyone there?' he asked = He asked if/whether anyone was there. 1 Normally we can use either if and whether, if is the more usual: 'Do you know Bill?' he said =

He asked if/whether I knew Bill.

'Did you see the accident?' the policeman asked =

The policeman asked if/whether I had seen the accident. 2 whether can emphasize that a choice has to be made:

'Do you want to go by air or sea?' the travel agent asked = The travel agent asked whether I wanted to go by air or by sea. Note whether or not:

'Do you want to insure your luggage or not?' he asked == He asked whether or not I wanted to insure my luggage or He asked if I wanted to insure my luggage or not.

3 whether + infinitive is possible after wonder, want to know: 'Shall/Should 1wait for them or go on?' he wondered =

He wondered whether to wait for them or go on or

He wondered whether he should wait for them or go on. inquire + whether + infinitive is possible but less usual. (For whether + infinitive, see also 242 B.)

4 whether is neater if the question contains a conditional clause as otherwise there would be two ifs:

'If you get the job will you move to York?' Bill asked = Bill asked whether, if I got the job, I'd move to York.

Questions beginning shall I/we? in indirect speech Questions beginning shall I/we? can be of four kinds.

Speculations or requests for information about a future event:

'Shall I ever see them again?' he wondered. 'When shall I know the result of the test?' she asked.

These follow the ordinary rule about shall/will. Speculations are usually introduced by wonder:

He wondered if he would ever see them again. She asked when she would know the result of the test.

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Requests for instructions or advice:

'What shall I do with it?' = 'Tell me what to do with it.' These are expressed in indirect speech by ask, inquire etc., with should or the be + infinitive construction. Requests for advice are normally reported by should:

'Shall we post it. sir?' he said =

He asked the customer if they were to post/if they should post if. 'What shall I say, mother?' she said =

She asked her mother what she should say. (request for advice) When a choice is required we normally use whether in indirect speech. whether + infinitive is sometimes possible (see also 317 E):

'Shall I lock the car or leave it unlocked?' he said =

He asked whether he should/was to lock the car or leave it unlocked or He asked whether to lock the car etc.

Offers:

'Shall I bring you some tea?' could be reported He offered to bring me some tea.

Note that 'Wouldyou like me to bring you some tea?' and 'I'll bnngyou some tea if you like' could also be reported by offer.

Suggestions:

'Shall we meet at the theatre?' could be reported He suggested meeting at the theatre. Questions beginning will you/would you/could you?

These may be ordinary questions, but may also be requests, invitations, or, very occasionally, commands (see 284. 286, 320):

He said. 'Will you be there tomorrow?' (ordinary question) = He asked if she would be there the next day.

'Will you stand still!'he shouted = He shouted at me to standstill''^! He told/ordered me to stand still.

'Wouldyou like to live in New York?' he asked = He asked if I would tike to live in New York.

'Wilt/Would you file these letters, please?' he said = He asked/told me to/lie the Setters.

'Would you like a lift?' said Ann = Ann offered me a lift. 'Would you like to come round/Could yw come round for a drink?'

he said =

He invited me (to come) round for a drink. 'Could you live on £25 a week?' he asked = He asked if I could live on £25 a week. 'Could/Would you give me a hand?' she said = She asked us to give her a hand.

'Could/Would you show me the photos?' she said =

She asked me to show her the photos or She asked to see the photos. (For can/could/may/might + I/we?, see 283. For requests for permission, see 131.) 320 Commands, requests, advice in indirect speech

Direct command: He said, 'Lie down, Tom.' Indirect command: He told Tom to He down.

Indirect commands, requests, advice are usually expressed by a verb of comraand/request/advice + object + infinitive (== the object -i- infinitive construction).

A The following verbs can be used: advise, ask, beg, command, encourage, entreat, forbid, implore, invite, order, recommend, remind, request, tell, urge, warn.

(Note that say is not included in this list. For indirect commands/ requests reported by say, see 321.)

Hesaid. 'Get your coat, Tom!' = He told Tom to get his coat. 'You had better hurry, Bill!' she said = She advised Bill to hurry.

B Negative commands, requests etc. are usually reported by not •+• infinitive:

'Don't swim out too far, boys,' I said =

I warned/told the boys not to swim out too far. forbid can also be used for prohibitions, but is more common in the passive than in the active.

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C Verbs in A above require object + infinitive, i.e. they must be followed directly by the person addressed without preposition (see also 89). The person addressed is often not mentioned in direct commands, requests

etc.: He said, 'Go away!' When reporting such commands/requests therefore we must add a noun

or pronoun:

He told me/him/her/us/them/the children to go away. ask diners from the other verbs in A in that it can also be followed directly by the infinitive of certain verbs, e.g. see, speak to, talk to: He said. 'Could I see Tom, please?' =

He asked to see Tom. (See also 283.) But this is quite different from the ask + object + infinitive type of request.

Both ask and beg can be followed by the passive infinitive:

'Do. please, send me to a warm climate,' he asked/begged = He asked/begged us to send him to a warm climate or He asked/begged to be sent to a warm climate.

Examples of indirect commands, requests, advice Note that direct commands are usually expressed by the imperative, but that requests and advice can be expressed in a variety of

ways (see 283-7):

'If I were you, I'd slop taking tranquillizers,' I said =

I advised him to stop taking tranquillizers. (See 311 D.)

'Why don't you take off your coat?'he said =

He advised me to take off my coat. (See also 287.)

' Would/Could you show me your passport, please?' he said =

He asked me to show him my passport or

He asked me for/He asked to see my passport.

'You might post some letters for me,' said my boss =

My boss asked me to post some letters for him.

'If you 'd just sign the register,' said the receptionist =

The receptionist asked him to sign the register.

'Do sit down.' said my hostess =-

My hostess asked/invited me to sit down.

'Please, please don't take any risks,' said his wife =

His wife begged/implored him not to take any risks.

'Forget all about this you »g man,' said her parents: 'don't see him '

again or answer his

letters' =

Her parents ordered her to forget all about the young man and told

her not to see him again or answer his letters or

She was ordered to forget all about the young man and forbidden to ._

see him again or

answer his tetters, (passive construction)

'Don't forget to order the wine.' said Mrs Pitt =

Mrs Pitt reminded her husband to order the wine.

'Try again,' said Ann's friends encouragingly =

Ann's friends encouraged her to fry again.

'Go on, apply for the job,'said Jack =

Jack urged/encouraged me to apply for the job.

' You had better not leave your car unlocked,' said my friends;

'there's been a lot of stealing from cars' = '

My friends warned me not to leave my car

unlocked as there had been a lot of stealing from cars.

will you . . . sentences are normally treated as requests and reported by ask:

'Will all persons not travelling please go ashore,' he said = He asked at! persons not travelling to go ashore. But if a will you sentence is spoken sharply or irritably, and the ' please is omitted, it might be reported by tell or order;

'Will you be quiet!/Be quiet, will you!' he said = He told/ordered us to be quiet.

321Other ways of expressing indirect commands

A say/tell + subject + be + infinitive:

He said/told me that I was to wait. This is a possible alternative to the tell + infinitive construction, so that:

He said, 'Don't open the door' could be reported He told me not to open the door or

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fie said that I wasn 't to open the door. The be + infinitive construction is particularly useful in the following cases:

1 When the command is introduced by a verb in the present tense:

He says, 'Meet me at the station' = He says that we are to meet him at the station. (He tells us to meet him would be much less likely.)

2 When the command is preceded by a clause (usually of time or condition):

He said, 'If she leaves the house follow her' could be reported He said that if she left the house I was to follow her. He told me to follow her if she left the house would be equally possible here but note that if we use the tell + infinitive construction we must change the order of the sentence so as to put the command first. Sometimes this would result in a rather confusing sentence. For example, the request If you see Ann tell her to ring me would become He told me to tell Ann to ring him if I saw her. Such requests can only be reported by the be + infinitive construction:

He said that if I saw Ann I was to tell her to ring him. B say/tell (+ that) + subject + should

1 say or tell with a should construction normally indicates advice rather than command: He said, 'If your brakes are bad don't drive so fast' =

(Video) Dispelling myths on coax length

He said/told me that if my brakes were bad I shouldn 't drive so fast or

He advised me not to drive so fast if my brakes were bad. (Note change of order here, as with tell + infinitive above.)

2Advice can also be expressed by advise, recommend and urge + that. . . should. This is particularly useful in the passive (see 302 E):

'! advise cancelling the meeting.' he said s He advised that the meeting should be cancelled.

3command and order can also be used with should or a passive infinitive;

'Evacuate the area!' ordered the superintendent =

The superintendent ordered that everyone should lease the area or ordered that the area should be evacuated or

ordered the area to be evacuated.

4 Note that when an indirect command is expressed by an object + infinitive construction, as in 320, there is normally the idea that the

person who is to obey the command is addressed directly. But when the command is expressed by the be + infinitive construction (A above) or by a should construction (B3 above) the recipient of the command need not necessarily be addressed directly. The command may be conveyed to him by a third person.

322let's, let us, let him/them in indirect speech

let's

let's usually expresses a suggestion and is reported by suggest in indirect speech:

He said, 'Let's leave the case at the station' would be reported:

He suggested leaving the case at the station or He suggested that they/we should leave the case at the station.

(See 289 for constructions with suggest.) He said, 'Let's stop now and finish it later' would be reported:

He suggested stopping then and finishing it later or He suggested that they/we should stop then and finish it later.

Similarly in the negative:

He said, 'Let's not say anything about it till we hear the facts' = He suggested not saying anything/saying nothing about it till they heard the facts or He suggested that they shouldn 't say anything till they heard the facts.

But let's not used alone in answer to an affirmative suggestion is often reported by some phrase such as opposed the idea/was against it/objected. So that we could report:

'Let's sell the house,' said Tom. 'Lei's not,' said Ann by Tom suggested selling the house hut Ann was against it.

(For other suggestion forms, see 289.) ;. let's/let us sometimes expresses a call to action. It is then usually

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reported by urge/advise + object + infinitive (see also 320):

The strike leader said, 'Let's show the bosses that we are united' = The strike leader urged the workers to show the bosses that they were united.

323let him/them

In theory let him/them expresses a command. But very often the speaker has no authority over the person who is to obey the command;

7('s not my business,' said the postman. 'Let the government do something about it.'

Here, the speaker is not issuing a command but expressing an obligation. Sentences of this type are therefore normally reported by ought/should:

He said that if wasn 't his business and that the government ought to/should do something about it.

2 Sometimes, however, let him/them does express a command. It is then usually reported by say + be + infinitive (see 321):

'Let the boys clear up this mess,' said the headmaster -= The headmaster said that the boys were to clear up the mess. 'Let the guards'be armed,' he ordered = He ordered that the guards should be armed.

3 Sometimes let him/them is more a suggestion than a command. In such cases it is usually reported by suggest, or say + should (see 289):

She said, 'Let them go to their consul. He 'II be able to help them' = She suggested their/them going to their consul etc. or She suggested that they should go to their consul or She said that they should go to their consul.

4 let him/them can also indicate the speaker's indifference: 'The neighbours will complain,' said Ann.

'Let them (complain),' said Tom = Tom expressed indifference or Tom said he didn't mind (if they complained).

C let there be

Here the speaker could be ordering, advising, urging or begging:

'Let there be no reprisals,' said the widow of the murdered man = The widow urged/begged that there should be no reprisals.

D let is also an ordinary verb meaning allow/permit:

'Let him come with us, mother; I'll take care of him,' I said =

I asked my mother to let him come with us and promised to take care of him.

323Exclamations and yes and no

A Exclamations usually become statements in indirect speech. The exclamation mark disappears.

1 Exclamations beginning What <a). . . or How ... can be reported

(a) by exclaim/say that:

He said, 'What a dreadful idea!' or 'How dreadful.'' = He exclaimed that it was a dreadful idea/was dreadful

or (b) by give an exclamation of delight/disgust/horror/relief/ surprise etc-

Alternatively, if the exclamation is followed by an action we can use the construction (c) with an exclamation of delight/disgust etc. +

he/she etc. + verb.

2 Other types of exclamation, such as Good! Marvellous! Splendid! Heavens! Oh! Ugh! etc. can be reported as in (b) or (c) above:

'Good!' he exclaimed =

He gave an exclamation of pleasure/satisfaction.

' Ugh!' she exclaimed, and turned the programme off =

With an exclamation of disgust she turned the programme off.

Note also:

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He said, 'Thank you!' = He thanked me. ;' He said. 'Curse this fog.'' = He cursed the fog. He said. 'Good luck!' = He wished me luck.

He said. 'Happy Christmas'.' = He wished me a happy Christmas. He said, 'Congratulations9' = He congratulated me.

He said, 'Liar!' = He called me a liar. He said, 'Damn!'etc. = He swore.

The notice said: WELCOME TO WALES.' = '• The notice welcomed visitors to Wales. ri

yes and no are expressed in indirect speech by subject + appropriate ' auxiliary verb:

He said, 'Can you swim?'and I said'No' = He asked (me) if I could swim and I said I couldn't. Hesaid, 'Will you have time to do it?' and I said 'Yes' = He asked if I would have time to do it and I said that I would.

324Indirect speech: mixed types

Direct speech may consist of statement + question, question + command, command + statement, or all three together.

Normally each requires its own introductory verb:

'I don't know the way. Do you?' he asked .= ; He said he didn't know the way and asked her if she did/if she knew it.

'Someone's coming,' he said. 'Get behind the screen' =

He said that someone was coming and told me to get behind the screen.

'I'm going shopping. Can I get you anything?' she said = '' She said she was going shopping and asked if she could get me ; anything.

'I can hardly hear the radio,' he said. 'Could you turn it up?' =

He said he could hardly hear the radio and asked her to turn it up.

But sometimes, when the iast clause is a statement which helps to explain the first, we can use as instead of a second introductory verb:

'You'd better wear a coat. it's very cold out.'he said =. He advised me to wear a coat as it was very cold out. 'You'd better not walk across the park alone. People have been

mugged there,' he said =

He warned her not to walk across the park alone as people had been mugged there. Sometimes the second introductory verb can be a participle:

'Please, please, don't drink too much! Remember thatyou'U have to drive home,' she said = She begged him not to drink too much, reminding him that he 'd have to drive home.

'Let's shop on Friday. The supermarket will be very crowded on Saturday,' she said =

She suggested shopping on Friday, pointing out that the supermarket would be very crowded on Saturday. (as could be used in both these examples.)

325 must and needn't

Amust used for deductions, permanent commands/prohibitions and to express intention remains unchanged. (For must, expressing advice, see 287 A.)

1 Deductions:

She said, 'I'm always running into him; he must live near here!' a She said that. . . he must live in the area.

2 Permanent command:

He said, 'This door must be kept locked' =-He said that the door must be kept locked. 3 must used casually to express intention:

He said, ' We must have a party to celebrate this' = He said that they must have a party to celebrate it.

Bmust used for obligation can remain unchanged. Alternatively it can be reported by would

have to or had to.

1 I/we must reported by would have to

would have to is used when the obligation depends on some future action, or when the fulfilment of the obligation appears remote or uncertain, i.e. when must is clearly replaceable by will have to:

'If the floods get worse we must (will have to) leave the house,' he said =

If e said that if the floods got worse they would have to leave the

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house.

'When it stops snowing we must start digging ourselves out,' I said =

I said that when it stopped snowing we would have to start digging ourselves out.

'We must mend the roof properly next year,' he said =

He said that they would have to mend the roof properly the following year.

7 have just received a letter,' he said. 'I must go home' =

He said that he had just received a letter and would have to go home- (But had to would be more usual here if he went at once, i.e. had to'would imply that he went at once.)

2 I/we must reported by had to

had to is the usual form for obligations where times for fulfilment have been fixed, or plans made, or when the obligation is fulfilled fairly promptly, or at least by the time the speech is reported:

He said, 'I must wash my hands' (and presumably did so) = He said that he had to wash his hands.

Tom said, 'I must be there by nine tomorrow' = { Tom said that he had to be there by nine the next day. ^would have to would be possible here also but would imply that the ^obligation was self-imposed and that no outside authority was involved, ; had to could express either an outside authority (i.e. that someone had ; told him to be there) or a self-imposed obligation. HAH difficulties about had to/would have to can of course be avoided ,:jby keeping must unchanged. In both the above examples must could '''have been used instead of had to/would have to.

you/he/they must is reported similarly: He said. 'You must start at once' =

He said that she must/had to/would have to start at once. But note that would have to removes the idea of the speaker's authority:

Tom said. 'I/you want to stay on here you must work harder' =

Twn said that if she wanted to stay on she must/would have to work harder.

must implies that Tom himself insists on her working harder, would have to merely implies that this will be necessary.

must I/you/he? can change similarly but as must in the interrogative usually concerns the present or immediate future it usually becomes had to:

'Must you go so soon?' I said = I asked him if he had to go so soon. gfaust not

must not usually remains unchanged, you/he must not remains

.pichanged or is expressed as a negative command (see 320-1):

He said, 'You mustn't tell anyone' = f:- He said that she mustn 't ell/wasn 't to tell anyone

or

He told her not to tell anyone. ',, needn't

needn't can remain unchanged and usually does. Alternatively it can i,change to didn't have to/wouldn't have to just as must changes to

•had to/would have to:

He said. 'You needn't wait' = He said that I needn't wait.

I said, 'If you can lend me the money I needn 't go to the bank = i; / said that if he could lend me the money I needn 't/wouldn 't have to

go to the bank.

He said, '1 needn't be in the office till ten tomorrow morning' •=

He said that he needn't/didn't have to be in the office till ten the next ! morning. "need I/you/he? behaves exactly in the same ways as must I/you/he? ; i.e. it normally becomes had to:

'Need I finish my pudding?' asked the small boy = ^ The small boy asked if he had to finish his pudding.

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32 Conjunctions

326Co-ordinating conjunctions: and, but, both . . . and, or, either ... or, neither . . . nor, not only . .

. but also

These join pairs of nouns/adjectives/adverbs/verbs/phrases/clauses: He plays squash and rugby.

I make the payments and keep the accounts. He works quickly and/but accurately.

He is small but strong. She is intelligent but lazy. We came in first but (we) didn't win the race.

Both men and women were drafted into the army. Ring Tom or Bill. She doesn 't smoke or drink. He can't (either) read or write.

You can (either) walk up or take the cable car. He can neither read nor write.

Not only men but also women were chosen.

327besides, however, nevertheless, otherwise, so, therefore, still, yet, though

These adverbs/conjunctions can join clauses or sentences and are then often known as 'conjuncts'. But they can also, with the exception of nevertheless and therefore (conjunctions), be used in other ways and sometimes as other parts of speech. Their position will vary according to how they are used-

A besides (preposition) means 'in addition to'. It precedes a noun/pronoun/gerund: Besides doing the cooking I look after the garden. besides (adverb) means 'in addition'. It usually precedes the clause it introduces, but can follow it:

I can't go now; I'm too busy. Besides, my passport is out of date. moreover could replace besides here in more formal English. anyway or in any case could be used here in more informal English:

Anyway, my passport's out of date.

B however (adverb of degree, see 41) precedes its adjective/adverb:

You couldn't earn much, however hard you worked. however (conjunction) usually means 'but'. It can precede or follow its clause or come after the first word or phrase:

I'll offer it to Tom. However, he may not want it or

He may 'not want it however or Tom, however, may not want it or If, however, he doesn't want it. . .

' But when two contrasting statements are mentioned, however can t; mean'but/nevertheless/all the same':

They hadn 't trained hard, but/however/nevertheless/all the same they won or they won, however/nevertheless/all the same, (See also 329.)

.• otherwise (adverb) usually comes after the verb:

It must be used in a well-ventilated room. Used otherwise it could be harmful. otherwise (conjunction) means 'if not/or else':

We must be early; otherwise we won't get a seat. or could also be used here in colloquial English;

We must be early or (else) see won't get a seat.

so (adverb of degree) precedes its adjective/adverb:

I was so hot that. . . They ran so fast that. . . so (conjunction) precedes its clause: Our cases were heavy, so we look a taxi.

therefore (conjunction) can be used instead of so in formal English. It can come at the beginning of the clause or after the first word or phrase; or before the main verb:

There is fog at Heathrow; the plane, therefore, has been diverted/the plane has therefore been diverted/therefore the plane has been diverted.

••• still and yet can be adverbs of time (see 37):

The children are still up. They haven't had supper yet. '•' still and yet (conjunctions) come at the beginning of the clauses they introduce.

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still (conjunction) means 'admitting that/nevertheless'. yet (conjunction) means 'in spite of that/all the same/nevertheless'. You aren 't rich; still, you could do something to help him. They are ugly and expensive; yet people buy them.

though/although normally introduce clauses of concession (see 340):

Though/Although they're expensive, people buy them. though (but not although) can also be used to link two main clauses. though used in this way means 'but' or 'yet' and is placed sometimes at the beginning but more often at the end of its clause:

He says he 'II pay, though I don't think he will or He says he 'II pay; I don 'f think he will, though.

328Subordinating conjunctions: if, that, though/although, unless, when etc.

Subordinating conjunctions introduce subordinate adverb or noun clauses and are dealt with in the chapters on the different types of clause.

See chapter 21 for conditional clauses, chapter 33 for purpose clauses chapter 34 for adverb clauses of reason, result, concession, comparison and time, and chapter 35 for noun clauses.

Some conjunctions have more than one meaning and may introduce more than one type of clause.

Pairs and groups of conjunctions which are sometimes confused with each other or with other parts of speech are dealt with below.

329 though/although and in spite of (preposition phrase), despite (preposition)

Two opposing or contrasting statements, such as He had no qualifications and He got the job, could be combined as follows:

A With but, however or nevertheless as shown in 327 above: He had no qualifications but he got the job.

He had no qualifications; however he got the Job/he got the job, however.

He had no qualifications; nevertheless he got the job. B With though/although:

He got the job although he had no qualifications. Although he had no qualifications he got the job.

C With in spite of/despite + noun/pronoun/gerund:

In spite of'having no qualifications he got the job. He got the job in spite of having no qualifications.

despite = in spite of. It is chiefly used in newspapers and in formal English: Despite the severe weather conditions all the cars completed the

course.

D Note that though/although requires subject + verb: Although it was windy . . .

and that in spite of/despite requires noun/pronoun or gerund: In spite a/the wind . . .

Some more examples:

Although it smelt horrible . . . = In spite of the horrible smell. . . Although it was dangerous . . .

= In spite of the danger . . . Though he was inexperienced . . . = In spite of his inexperience/his being inexperienced . . .

330for and because

These conjunctions have nearly the same meaning and very often either can be used. It is, however, safer to use because, as a clause introduced by for (which we will call a 'forclause') has a more restricted use than a clause introduced by because:

1 A for-clause cannot precede the verb which it explains: Because it was wet he took a taxi. (for is not possible.)

2 A for-clause cannot be preceded by not, but or any conjunction:

He stole, not because he wanted the money but because he liked stealing. (for not possible)

3 A for-clause cannot be used in answer to a question:

Why did you do it? ~ I did it because I was angry. (for not possible)

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4 A for-clause cannot be a mere repetition of what has been already stated, but always includes some new piece of information:

He spoke in French. She was angry because he had spoken in

French, (for is not possible.) But She was angry, for she didn 't know French. (Here for is correct;

because is also possible.)

The reason for these restrictions is that a for-clause does not tell us why a certain action was performed, buE merely presents a piece of additional information which helps to explain it. Some examples of for-clauses:

The days wereshort, for it was now December. He took the food eagerly, for he had eaten nothing since dawn. When I saw her in the river I was frightenedFor at that point the currents were dangerous.

In speech a short pause is usually made before a for-clause and in written English this place is usually marked by a comma, and sometimes, as in the last example above, by a full stop. because could be used in the above sentences also, though for is better.

331 when, while, as used to express time

A when is used, with simple tenses:

1 When one action occurs at the same time as another or in the span of another:

When it is wet the buses are crowded.

When we lived in town we often went to the theatre.

2 When one action follows another:

When she pressed the button the lift stopped.

Bas is used:

When the second action occurs before the first is finished:

As / left the house I remembered the key.

This implies that I remembered the key before I had completed the action of leaving the house; I was probabiy still in the doorway. While I was leaving would have the same meaning here, but When I left would give the impression that the act of leaving was complete and the door shut behind me.

2 For parallel actions: He sang as he worked.

3 For parallel development:

As the sun rose the fog dispersed.

As it grew darker if became colder = The darker it grew, the colder it became. As she came to know him better she relied on him more.

As he became more competent he was given more interesting work.

If we used when here we would lose all idea of simultaneous progression or development. 4 To mean while (= during the time that):

As he stood there he saw two men enter the bar.

But there is no particular advantage in using as here, and while is safer.

332 as meaning when/while or because/since

A Restricted use of as (= when/while)

as here is chiefly used with verbs indicating action or development. It is not normally used with the type of verb listed in 168, except when there is an idea of development, as in B3 above. Nor is it normally used with verbs such as live, stay, remain.

B as used with the above verbs/types of verb normally means because/since;

As he was tired . . . = Because he was tired . . .

As he knew her well. . . = Because he knew her well. . .

As it contains alcohol. . . = Since/Because it contains alcohol. . .

As he lives near here . . . = Since/Because he lives . . .

C With most verbs, as can be used with either meaning:

As/While he shaved he thought about the coming interview.

As/Because he shaved with a blunt razor he didn't make a very good job of it.

If in doubt here, students should use while or because.

D as + noun can mean either when/while or because/since:

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As a student he had known great poverty = When he was a student he had known great poverty.

As a student he gets/got in for half price = Because he is/was a student he gets/got in . . .

As a married man, he has to think of his family = Because/Since he is a married man . . .

as meaning when/while here is usually followed by a perfect tense. as meaning because/since can be followed by any tense.

as, when, while used to mean although, but, seeing that

as can mean though/although but only in the combination adjective + as + subject + to be/to seem/to appear:

Tired as he was he offered to carry her = Though he was tired he offered to carry her. Strong as he was, he couldn't lift it.

while can mean but and is used to emphasize a contrast:

'At sea' means 'on a ship', while 'at the sea' means 'at the seaside'. Some people waste food while others haven't enough.

while can also mean although and is then usually placed at the beginning of a sentence:

While I sympathize with your point of view I cannot accept it.

when can mean seeing that/although. It is therefore very similar to while, but is chiefly used to introduce a statement which makes another action seem unreasonable. It is often, though not necessarily, used with a question:

How can you expect your children to be truthful when you yourself tell lies? It's not fair to expect her to do all the cooking when she has had no training or experience.

Do not confuse when and if

When he comes implies that we are sure he will come. If he comes implies that we don't know whether he will come or not. (For if in conditional sentences, see chapter 21.)

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33

Purpose

334

Purpose is normally expressed by the infinitive

Purpose can be expressed by:

A The infinitive alone:

He went to France to learn French. They stopped to ask the way. When there is a personal

object of the main verb, the infinitive may refer to this and not to the subject:

He sen! Tom to the shop Co buy bread. (Tom was to buy the bread.)

E

in order or so as + infinitive

in order + infinitive can imply either that the subject wants to perform the action or that he wants it to happen.

so as + infinitive implies only that the subject wants the action to happen, in order is, therefore, the more generally useful,

in order or so as are used:

1With a negative infinitive to express a negative purpose: He left his gun outside in order/so as not to frighten us.

2With to be and to have:

She left work early in order/so as to be at home when he arrived. She gave up work in order/so as to have more time with the children.

3 When the purpose is less immediate:

He is studying mathematics in order/so as to qualify/or a better job. She learnt typing in order to help her husband with his work.

4Sometimes in longer sentences, to emphasize that the infinitive indicates purpose: He was accused of misrepresenting the facts in order/so as to make

the scheme seem feasible.

He took much more trouble over the figures than he usually did in

order/so as to show his new boss what a careful worker he was. (But in order/so as is not essential and is often omitted.) When the infinitive of purpose precedes the main verb, in order/so as may be placed first:

In order/So as to show his boss what a careful worker he was, he

took extra trouble over the figures. (But here also in order/so as may be omitted.)

5When there is a personal object but we want the infinitive to refer unambiguously to the subject:

He sent his sons to a boarding school in order/so as to have some peace. (He, not his sons, was going to have some peace.) Compare with:

He sent his sons to a boarding school to team to live in a community.

(Not he but his sons were to learn to live in a community.) But this in order/so as construction is not very common. It is more usual to say:

He sent his sons to a boarding school because he wanted to have some peace.

in order (but not so as), used to emphasize that the subject really had this purpose in mind:

He bought diamonds when he was in Amsterdam! ~ That wasn't surprising. He went to Amsterdam in order to buy diamonds, (not for any other purpose)

We could also, however, express^this idea by stressing the first verb and omitting in order: He 'went to Amsterdam to buy diamonds. Infinitive + noun + preposition:

/ want a case to keep my records in.

I need a corkscrew to open this bottle with. Note that here we are talking about a particular purpose. For a general purpose we use for + gerund:

This is a case for keeping records in.

A corkscrew is a tool for opening bottles.

335Infinitives of purpose after go and come

It is not normal to use an infinitive of purpose after the imperative or infinitive of go and come. Instead of Go to find Bill we normally say Go and find Bill; and instead of Come to talk to Ann

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we say Come and talk to Ann; i.e. instead of an imperative + an infinitive of purpose we use two imperatives Joined by and. And instead of:

I must go to help my mother and I'll come to check the accounts we normally say:

I must go and help my mother and I'll come and check the accounts. i.e. instead of an infinitive + an infinitive of purpose we use two infinitives joined by and (see 246 I).

But when go and come are used as gerunds or in any present or past tense they take the ordinary infinitive of purpose:

I'm thinking of going to look for mushrooms. I went to help my mother.

I've come to check the accounts.

I didn 't come to talk to Bill; I came to talk to you.

336Clauses of purpose

Clauses are necessary when the person to whom the purpose refers is different from the subject of the main clause, or when the original subject is stated again:

Ships carry lifeboats so that the crew can escape if the ship sinks. This knife has a cork handle so that if will float if it falls overboard.

A Purpose clauses are usually expressed by so that + will/would or can/could + infinitive. can/could is used here to mean will/would be able to:

They make £10 notes a different size from £5 notes so that blind people can (= wil! be able to) tell the difference between them. They wrote the notices in several languages so that foreign tourists could (= would be able to) understand them. can and will are used when the main verb is in a present, present perfect or future tense; could and would are used when the main verb is in a past tense. See the examples above and also:

/ light/am lighting/have lit/will light the fire so that the house will be warm when they return. I have given/will give him a key so that he can get into the house whenever he likes.

I pinned the note to his pillow so that he would be sure to see it. There were telephone points every kilometre so that drivers whose cars had broken down would be able to/could summon help. If that is omitted from purpose clauses with can/could, the idea of purpose may disappear. The sentence He took my shoes so that I couldn't leave the house would normally mean 'He took my shoes to prevent my leaving etc.' but He took my shoes, so I couldn 't leave the house would normally mean 'He took my shoes; therefore I wasn't able to leave'.

B Purpose clauses can also be formed by so that/in order that/that + may/might or shall/should + infinitive. These are merely more formal constructions than those shown in A above. There is no difference in meaning.

Note that so that can be followed by will/can/may/shall or their past forms, while in order that or that are limited to may/shall or their past forms.

that used alone is rarely found except in very dramatic speech or writing, or in poetry.

The rules about sequences of tenses are the same as those shown above. The following are very formal:

We carved their names on the stone so that/in order that future generations should/might know what they had done. These men risk their lives so that/in order that we may live more safely.

may in the present tense is much more comman than shall, which is rarely used. In the past tense either might or should can be used. The student should know the above forms but should not normally need to use them, as for all ordinary purposes so that + can/could or will/would should be quite sufficient.

C Negative purpose clauses are made by putting the auxiliary verb (usually will/would or should) into the negative:

He wrote his diary in code so that his wife wouldn 't be able to read it-He changed his name so that his new friends wouldn Vshouidn 't know that he had once been accused of murder.

Criminals usually telephone from public telephone boxes so that the police won't be able to trace the call.

Negative purpose clauses can, however, usually be replaced bv to prevent + noun/pronoun + gerund, or to avoid + gerund-

He dyed his beard so that we shouldn 't recognize him/to prevent us recognizing him/to avoid being recognized, (passive gerund) She always shopped in another village so that she

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wouldn 'i meet her own neighbours/to avoid meeting her own neighbours. These infinitive phrases are preferred to negative purpose clauses.

337 in case and lest

Ain case

in case + subject + verb can follow a statement or command:

I don't let him climb trees in case he tears his trousers. This first action is usually a preparation for, or a precaution against, the action in the if-clause, which is a possible future action.

in case + present tense normally has the meaning 'because this may happen/because perhaps this will happen' or 'for fear that this may happen'-

in case + past tense normally means 'because this might happen/because perhaps this would happen' or 'for fear that this would happen'.

Both present tense and past tense here can be replaced by should + infinitive. should used here would express greater improbability, but this construction is not very usual,

BTenses with in case

Main verb

Future

present tense or Present

+ in case +

.. _( ^

should + infinitive Present perfect J

Conditional

1

(

. ,

past tense or

Past tense

+ in case +

n .

,

should + infinitive

Past perfect

;

I'll make a cake in case someone drops in at the weekend.

I carry a spare wheel in case I have/should have a puncture.

I always keep candles in the house in case there is a power cut.

I always kept candies in the house in case there was a power cut. (See also 227.) lest means 'for fear that' and is followed by should:

He doesn't/didn't dare to leave the house lest someone should recognize him. lest is rarely found except in formal written English.

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34 Clauses of reason, result, concession, comparison, time

338 Clauses of reason and result/cause

Except for the type shown in A2 and A3 below, both these clauses can be introduced by as or because. But as is safer for clauses of reason (see A below) and because is safer for clauses of result/cause (see B).

AClauses of reason

1 Introduced by as/because/since;

We camped there as/because/since it was too dark to go on. As/Because/Since it was too dark to go on, we camped there.

2 'in view of the fact that' can be expressed by as/since/seeing that, but not because: As/Since/Seeing that you are here, you may as well give me a hand. As/Since/Seeing that Tom knows French, he 'd better do the talking.

3 Where as/since/seeing that refers to a statement previously made or understood, it is replaceable by if:

As/Since/Seeing that/If you don't like Bill, why did you invite him? Note the use of if so:

I hope Bill won't come. ~ Ifso (= If you hope he won't come), why did you invite him? For if + so/not, see 347.

BClauses of result/cause (see also 339) are introduced by because or as: The fuse blew because we had overloaded the circuit.

He was angry because we were late.

As it/rose hard that night there was ice everywhere next day. As the soup was very salty we were thirsty afterwards.

CThese combinations could also be expressed by two main clauses Joined by so: It was too dark to go on, so we camped there.

You are here, so you may as well give me a hand.

It froze hard that night, so there was ice everywhere next day. therefore can also be used. but is normal only in fairly formal sentences:

The Finnish delegate has not yet arrived. We are therefore postponing/We have therefore decided to postpone/Therefore we are postponing the meeting. (Notice possible positions of therefore.)

339 Clauses of result with such/so . . . that

Asuch is an adjective and is used before an adjective + noun:

They had such a fierce dog that no one dared to go near their house. He spoke for such a long time that people began to fall asleep.

Bso is an adverb and is used before adverbs and with adjectives which are not followed by their nouns:

The snow fell so fast that our footsteps were soon covered up. His speech went on for so long thai people began to fall asleep. Their dog was so fierce that no one dared come near it.

But such is never used before much and many. so so is used even when much and many are followed by nouns:

There was so much dust that we couldn't see what was happening. So many people

complained that they took the programme off.

C Note that such + a + adjective + noun is replaceable by so + adjective + a + noun, so that 'such a good man" is replaceable by 'so good a man'. This is only possible when a noun is preceded by a/an. It is not a very usual form but may be met in literature. Sometimes for emphasis so is placed at the beginning of the sentence. It is then followed by the inverted form of the verb (see 45):

So terrible was the storm that whole roofs were ripped off.

340Clauses of concession

These are introduced by although, though (see 327, 329), even though, even if, no matter, however (see 85) and sometimes by whatever, as is also possible, but only in the adjective + as + be construction.

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Although/Though/Even though/Even if you don't like him you can still be polite. No matter what you do, don't touch this switch.

However rich people are, they always seem anxious to make more money. However carefully you drive, you will probably have an accident eventually. Whatever you do, don't tell him that I told you this.

Patient as he was, he had no intention of waiting for three hours.

(though he was patient) may + infinitive can be used in hypothetical cases:

However frightened you may tie yourself, you must remain outwardly calm. may can also imply 'I accept the fact that':

But he's your brother! ~ He may be my brother but I don't trust him!

But may used in this way is part of another main clause, not a clause of concession. should + infinitive can be used after even if just as it can after if in conditional sentences, to express the idea that the action expressed by the infinitive is not very likely to take place;

Even if he should find out he won't do anything about it.

341 Clauses of comparison

A Comparisons with adjectives and finite verbs (see also 20-2);

It's darker today than it was yesterday.

He doesn'I Ray as much tax as we do/as us. He spends more than he earns.

Note that + adjective, a colloquial form:

Will it cost £1W? ~ No, it won't cost as much as (ail) that. It won't

be (alt) that expensive. (It won't be as expensive as that.) that + adjective is sometimes used colloquially to mean very.

B Comparisons with adverbs and finite verbs (see also 31-4):

He didn't play as well as we expected/as well as you (did). He sings more loudly than anyone I've ever heard/than anyone else (does). You work harder than he does/than him/than I did at your age.

CComparisons with adjectives and infinitives or gerunds

Often either can be used, but the infinitive is more usual for a particular action, and gerunds are more usual for genera! statements (see also E below):

It's sometimes as cheap to buy a new one as (it is) (to) repair the old one.

Buying a new one is sometimes as cheap as repairing the old one.

He found that lying on She beach was just as boring as sitting in his office or

He found lying on the beach just as boring as sitting etc. (The infinitive would be less usual here.)

He thinks it (is) safer to drive himself than (to) let me drive. He thinks that driving himself is safer than letting me drive. It will soon be more difficult to get a visa than it is now.

Getting a visa will soon be more difficult than it is now.

D In comparisons of the type shown in C above, if we have an infinitive before as/than we will usually have an infinitive (not a gerund) after it, Similarly, if we have a gerund before as/than we will normally have a gerund (not an infinitive) after it. See examples above, But if we have a finite verb + this/that/which before as/than we can have a gerund after it. An infinitive is possible but would be much less usual:

I’ll deliver it by hand; this will be cheaper than posting it. He cleaned his shoes, which was better than doing nothing.

E Infinitives are used with would rather/sooner (see 297-8):

Most people would rather work than starve. I would resign rather than accept him as a partner.

342 Time clauses

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A These are introduced by conjunctions of time such as:

after

immediately

till/until

as

no sooner . . . than

when

as soon as

since

whenever

before

the sooner

while

hardly . . . when

They can also be introduced by the minute, the moment. For examples with when, as, while, see 331-3.

For examples with before, see 195 B.

B Remember that we do not use a future form, or a conditional tense, in a time clause.

Each of the following future forms becomes a present tense when we put it in a time clauseFuture simple:

You 'II be back soon. I'll stay till then. = I'll stay till you get back. be going to:

The parachutist is going to jump. Soon after he jumps his parachute will open.

The present continuous, used as a future form, and the future continuous: He's arriving/He 'II be arriving at six but

When he arrives he'll tell us all about the match.

Before he arrives I'll give the children their tea. But the continuous tense can, of course, be used in time clauses when it indicates a continuous action:

Peter and John will be playing/are playing/are going to play tennis tonight. While they are playing (during this time) we 'II go to the beach.

The future perfect changes to the present perfect, and the future perfect continuous changes to the present perfect continuous:

I'll have finished in the bathroom in a few minutes.

The moment/As soon as I have finished I'll give you a call. A conditional tense changes to a past tense:

We knew that he would arrive/would be arriving about six. We knew that till he arrived nothing would be done.

But when when introduces a noun clause it can be followed by a future or conditional tense: He said. 'When will the train get in?' =

He asked when the train would get in.

CClauses with since (see also 187-8)

In clauses since is usually followed by perfect tenses (but see 188);

They 've moved house twice since they got married or Since they got married, they 've moved house twice. He said he'd lived in a tent since his house burnt down. It's ages since I sailed/have sailed a boat. I haven't sailed a boat since I left college.

DClauses with after

In clauses after is often followed by perfect tenses:

After/When he had rung off I remembered. . .

After/When you 've finished with it, hang it up.

Ehardly/scarcely . . . when, no sooner . . . than (see also 45) The performance had hardly begun when the lights went out or Hardly had the performance begun when the lights went out.

scarcely could replace hardly here but is less usual,

He had no sooner drunk the coffee than he began to feel drowsy or No sooner had he drunk the coffee than he began to feel drowsy. He no sooner earns any money than he spends it or Immediately he earns any money he spends it. (more colloquial)

Note also the sooner . . . the sooner:

The sooner we start, the sooner we'll be there.

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35 Noun clauses

Noun clauses are very often introduced by that and are therefore often called that-clauses. However, not all noun clauses are that-clauses.

343 Noun clauses (that-clauses) as subject of a sentence

A Sentences with noun clause subjects usually begin with it (see 67 D):

It is disappointing that Tom can't come.

'that Tom can't come' is the subject.

B The usual construction is it + be/seem + adjective + noun clause (see 26-7):

It’s splendid that you passed your exam.

It's strange that there are no lights on.

Some adjectives require or can take that . . . should (see 236):

It is essential that everybody knows/should know what to do.

An alternative construction is it + be/seem + a + noun + noun clause. Nouns that can be used here include mercy, miracle, nuisance, pity, shame, relief, wonder, a good thing is also possible.

It's a great pity (that) they didn't get married. It's a wonder (that) you weren't killed.

It's a good thing (thai) you were insured.

I that-clauses after certain adjectives/participles

The construction here is subject + be + adjective/past participle + noun clause:

I am delighted that you passed your exam.

This construction can be used with

(a)adjectives expressing emotion: glad, pleased, relieved, sorry (see 26 P)

(b)adjectives/participles expressing anxiety, confidence etc.: afraid, anxious, aware, certain, confident, conscious, convinced (see 27). anxious requires that . . . should.

I'm afraid that I can't come till next week.

Are you certain that this is the right road?

345that-clauses after certain nouns

A that-clause can be placed after a large number of abstract nouns. The most useful of these are: allegation, announcement, belief, discovery, fact, fear, guarantee, hope, knowledge, promise, proposal, report, rumour, suggestion, suspicion, proposal and

suggestion require that . . . should,

The announcement that a new airport was to be built nearby aroused immediate opposition.

The proposal/suggestion that shops should open on Sundays led to a heated discussion.

A report that the area was dangerous was ignored by the residents.

346 Noun clauses as objects of verbs

A that-clauses are possible after a large number of verbs. Some of the most useful are given below.

acknowledge

find (wh)

recommend

admit

forget (wh)

remark

advise

guarantee

remember (wh)

agree

happen

remind

allege

hear (wh)

request

announce

hope

resolve

appear

imagine (wh)

reveal (wh)

arrange (wh)

imply

say (wh)

ask (wh)

indicate (wh)

see (wh)

assume

inform

seem

assure

insist

show (wh)

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beg

know (wh)

state (wh)

believe (wh)

leam

stipulate

command

make out (= state)

suggest (wh)

confess

mean

suppose

consider (wh)

notice (wh)

teach

declare

observe

tell (wh)

decide (wh)

occur to + object

think (wh)

demand

order

threaten

demonstrate

perceive

turn out

determine

presume

understand (wh)

discover

pretend

urge

doubt

promise

vow

estimate (wh)

propose

warn

expect

prove (wh)

wish

fear

realize (wh)

wonder (wh)

feel

recognize

and other verbs of communication, e.g. complain, deny, explain etc. (see 316 C).

wh: see E below.

Examples

They alleged/made out that they had been unjustly dismissed. He assumes that we agree with him. I can prove that she did it.

Most of the above verbs can also take another construction (see chapters 23-6). Note however that a verb + that-ctause does not necessarily have the same meaning as the same verb + infinitive/gerund/present participle: He saw her answering the letters means 'He watched her doing this' but He saw that she answered the letters could mean either 'He noticed that she did this' or 'He made sure by supervision that she did this'.

C appear, happen, occur, seem, turn out require it as subject:

It appears/seems that we have come on the wrong day. If occurred to me that he might be lying.

It turned out that nobody remembered the address.

D that + subject + should can be used after agree, arrange, be anxious, beg, command, decide, demand, determine, be determined, order, resolve and urge instead of an infinitive construction, and after insist and suggest instead of a gerund:

They agreed/decided that a statue should be put up. He urged that the matter should go to arbitration.

He suggested that a reward should be offered. (See 235, 302 E.)

Verbs in section A marked '(wh)' can also be followed by noun clauses beginning with wh-words: what, when, where, who, why, or with how:

He asked where he was to go.

They'll believe whatever you tell them. I forget who told me this.

Have you heard how he is getting on? I can't think why he left his wife.

I wonder when he will pay me back.

347 so and not representing a that-clause

A After believe, expect, suppose, think and after it appears/seems:

Will Tom be at the party? -- I expect so/suppose so/think so = I think he will.

For the negative we use: A negative verb with so:

Will the scheme be a success? ~ I don't believe so/expect so/suppose so/think so. Are they making good progress? ~ It doesn't seem so.

2Or an affirmative verb with not:

It won't take long, will it? ~ No, I suppose not or I don't suppose so.

The plane didn't land in Calcutta, did it? ~ I believe not or I don't believe so.

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B so and not can be used similarly after hope and be afraid (= be sorry to say):

Is Peter coming with us? ~ I hope so.

Will you have to Ray duly on this? ~ I'm afraid so.

The negative here is made with an affirmative verb + not: Have you got a work permit? ~ I'm afraid not.

C so and not can be used after say and tell + object:

How do you know there is going to be a demonstration? ~ Jack said so/Jack told me so.

I told you so! can mean 'I told you that this was the case/that this would happen'. This usually annoys the person addressed. For tell the only negative form is negative verb + so:

Tom didn't tell me so.

For say there are two negative forms, but the meaning is not the same:

Tom didn't say so = Tom didn't say that there would be a demonstration. Tom said not = Tom said there wouldn't be a demonstration.

Dif + so/not

so/not after if can replace a previously mentioned/understood subject + verb:

Will you be staying another night? If so (= If you are), we can give you a better room. If not (= If you aren't), could you be out of your room by 12:00?

if so/not here usually represents a clause of condition as shown above, but for if so, see also 338 A.

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36

Numerals, dates, and weights and measures

348

Cardinal numbers (adjectives and pronouns)

1 one

11 eleven

21 twenty-one

31 thirty-one etc.

2 two

12 twelve

22 twenty-two

40 forty

3 three

13 thirteen

23 twenty-three

50 fifty

4 four

14 fourteen

24 twenty-four

60 sixty

5 five

15 fifteen

25 twenty-five

70 seventy

6 six

16 sixteen

26 twenty-six

80 eighty

7 sewn

17 seventeen

27 twenty-seven

90 ninety

8 eight

18 eighteen

28 twenty-eight

100 a hundred

9 nine

19 nineteen

29 twenty-nine

1,000 a thousand

10 ten

20 twenty

30 thirty

1,000,000 a million

400 four hundred

140 a/one hundred and forty

1,006 a/one thousand and six

5,000 five thousand

260,127 two hundred and sixty thousand, one hundred and twenty-seven

349 Points to notice about cardinal numbers

AWhen writing in words, or reading, a number composed of three or more figures we place and before the word denoting tens or units:

713 seven hundred and thirteen

5,102 five thousand, one hundred and two but

6,100 six thousand, one hundred (no tens or units) and is used similarly with hundreds of thousands:

320,410 three hundred and twenty thousand, four hundred and ten and hundreds of millions: 303.000,000 three hundred and three million

Ba is more usual than one before hundred, thousand, million etc, when these numbers stand alone or begin an expression:

100 a hundred 1,000 a thousand

100,000 a hundred thousand

We can also say a hundred and one, a hundred and two etc. up to a hundred and ninety-nine and a thousand and one etc. up to a thousand and ninety-nine. Otherwise we use one, not a (see above). So:

1,040 a/one thousand and forty but

1,140 one thousand, one hundred and forty

C The words hundred, thousand, million and dozen. when used of a definite number, are never

made plural:

six hundred men ten thousand pounds

two dozen eggs If however, these words are used

loosely, merely to convey the idea of a large number, they must be made plural:

hundreds of people thousands of birds

dozens of times Note also that in this case the

preposition of is placed after hundreds, thousands etc.

of is not used with definite numbers except before the/them/ these/those or possessives: so: of the blue ones ten of these four of Tom's brothers

D Numbers composed of four or more figures are divided into groups of three as shown above. Decimals are indicated by '•', which is read 'point':

10.92 ten point nine two

A zero after a decimal point is usually read 'nought':

8.04 eight point nought four

But 'o' and 'zero' would also be possible.

350 Ordinal numbers (adjectives and pronouns)

first

eleventh

twenty-first

thirty-first etc.

second

twelfth

twenty-second

fortieth

third

thirteenth

twenty-third

fiftieth

fourth

fourteenth

twenty-fourth

sixtieth

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twenty-first = 21st

fifth

fifteenth

twenty-fifth

seventieth

sixth

sixteenth

twenty-sixth

eightieth

seventh

seventeenth

twenty-seventh

ninetieth

eighth

eighteenth

twenty-eighth

hundredth

ninth

nineteenth

twenty-ninth

thousandth

tenth

twentieth

thirtieth

millionth

When writing in words or reading fractions other than ½ (a half) and ¼ (a quarter), we use a combination of cardinal and ordinal numbers:

1/5 a/one fifth 1/10 a/one tenth (a is more usual than one) 3/5 three fifths 7/10 seven tenths

A whole number + a fraction can be followed directly by a plural noun: 2 ¼ miles == two and a quarter miles

½ (half) can be followed directly by a noun but other fractions require of before a noun: half a second but a quarter of a second (See also 2 E.)

half + of can also be used, but the of is optional:

Half (of) my earnings go in tax.

351 Points to notice about ordinal numbers

A Notice the irregular spelling of fifth, eighth, ninth and twelfth.

B When ordinal numbers are expressed in figures the last two letters of the written word must

be added (except in dates): first = 1st

second = 2nd

forty-second = 42nd

third = 3rd

sixty-third = 63rd

fourth = 4th

eightieth = 80th

C In compound ordinal numbers the rule about and is the same as for compound cardinal

numbers: 101st = the hundred and first.

The article the normally precedes ordinal numbers:

the sixtieth day

the fortieth visitor

Titles of kings etc. are written in Roman figures:

Charles V James III

Elizabeth II

But in spoken English we use the ordinal numbers preceded by the:

Charles the Fifth

James the Third

Elizabeth the Second

352

Dates

The days of the week

The months of the year

Sunday (Sun.)

January (Jan.)

July

Monday (Mm.)

February (Feb.)

August (Aug.)

Tuesday (Tues.)

March (Mar.)

September (Sept.)

Wednesday (Wed.)

April (Apr.)

October (Oct.)

Thursday (Thurs.)

May

November (Nov.)

Friday (Fri.)

June

December (Dec.)

Saturday (Sat.)

Days and months are always written with capital letters. Dates are expressed by ordinal numbers, so when speaking we say:

March the tenth, July the fourteenth etc. or the tenth of March etc.

They can, however, be written in a variety of ways; e.g. March the tenth could be written:

March 10 10 March

10th of March

March 10th

10th March

March the 10th

BThe year

When reading or speaking we use the term hundred but not thousand. The year 1987 would be read as nineteen hundred and eighty-seven or nineteen eighty-seven.

Years before the Christian era are followed by the letters BC (= Before Christ) and years dating from the Christian era are occasionally preceded by the letters AD (= Anno Domini, in

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the year of the Lord). The former are read in either way: 1500 BC would be read as one thousand five hundred BC or fifteen hundred BC.

353

Weights, length and liquid measure

A

Weights

The English weights table is as follows:

IS ounces (oz.) = 1 pound (Ib.)

14 Rounds

= 1 stow (st.)

8 stone

= 1 hundredweight (cict.)

20 hundredweight = 1 ton

1 pound

== 0-454 kilogram (kg) 2-2 pounds

= 1 kilogram 2.204-6 tbs

= 1

metric tonne

Plurals

ounce, pound and ton can take a in the plural when they are used as nouns, stone and hundredweight do not take s: e.g. we say six

Round of sugar or six pounds of sugar, but ten hundredweight of coal has no alternative.

When used in compound adjectives these terms never take a:

a ten-ton lorry kilo or kilogram usually take s in the plural when used as nouns: two kilos of apples or two kilograms of apples

BLength

The English table of length is as follows:

12 inches (in.) = 1 foot (ft.)

3 feet

= 1 yard (yd.)

1,760 yards

= 1 mile (m.)

1 inch

= 2.54 centimetres (cm)

1 yard

= 0.914 metre (m)

1 mile

= 1.609 kilometres (km)

Plurals

When there is more than one inch/mite/centimetre we normally use the plural form of these words:

one inch, ten inches one mile, four miles one centimetre, five centimetres

When there is more than one foot we can use either foot or feet. feet is the more usual when measuring heights. We can say;

six foot tall or six feet tall two foot long or two feet long When used in compound adjectives the above forms never take the plural form: a two-mile walk, a six-inch ruler.

C

Liquid measure

2 pints (Rt.)

= 1 quart (qt.)

1 pint = 0.568 litre (I)

4 quarts

= 1 gallon (gal.)

1 gallon= 4.55 litres

D Traditionally British measurements have been made in ounces, inches, pints etc. but there is now a gradual move towards the metric system.

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37 Spelling rules

For noun plurals, see also 12. For verb forms, see also 165, 172, 175.

354Introduction

Vowels are: a e i o u

Consonants are: b c d f g h j k l m n p q r s t v w x y z

A suffix is a group of letters added to the end of a word: beauty, beautiful (ful is the suffix.)

355Doubling the consonant

A

Words of one syllable having one vowel and ending in a single consonant double the

consonant before a suffix beginning with a vowel:

hit + ing = hitting

but keep, keeping (two vowels)

knit + ed = knitted

help, helped (two consonants)

run + er = runner

love, lover (ending in a vowel) qu here is considered as one

consonant: quit, quitting. When the final consonant is w, x or y it does not double:

row + ed -= rowed

box + ing = boxing

BTwoor three-syllable words ending in a single consonant following a single vowel double the final consonant when the stress falls on the last syllable. (The stressed syllable is in bold

type.)

acquit + ed = acquitted

but murmur + ed = murmured begin + er -= beginner

answer +

er = answerer deter + ed == deterred

orbit + ing = orbiting recur + ing = recurring

focus + ed, however, can be spelt focused orfocussed and bias + ed can

be spelt biased or biassed.

C The final consonant of handicap, kidnap, worship is also doubled:

handicap, handicapped

worship, worshipped kidnap, kidnapped

DWords ending in 1 following a single vowel or two vowels pronounced separately usually double the 1:

appal, appalled duel, duellist

repel, repellent cruel, cruelly

model, modelling

quarrel, quarrelling dial, dialled

refuel, refuelled

signal, signalled distil, distiller

356 Omission of a final e

A Words ending in e following a consonant drop the e before a suffix beginning with a vowel: believe + er = believer

love + ing = losing move + able = movable

But riye and singe keep their final e before ing to avoid confusion with die and sing: dye, dyeing singe, singeing age keeps its e before ing except in American English: age, ageing

likable can also be spelt likeable. Words ending in ce or ge sometimes retain the e. See 357. B A final e is retained before a suffix beginning with a consonant:

engage, engagement fortunate, fortunately hope. hopeful immediate, immediately

sincere, sincerely But the e m able/ible is dropped in the adverb form:

comfortable, comfortably incredible, incredibly The final e is also dropped in the following words:

argue, argument due, duly

judge, judgement or judgment true, truly whole, wholly (notice the double 1 here)

C Words ending in ee do not drop an e before a suffix:

agree, agreed, agreeing, agreement foresee, foreseeing, foreseeable

357 Words ending in ce and ge

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A

Words ending in ce or ge retain the e before a suffix beginning with a, o or u:

courage, courageous

peace, peaceful

manage, manageable

replace, replaceable

outrage, outrageous

trace, traceable

This is done to avoid changes in pronunciation, because c and g are generally pronounced

soft before e and i, but hard before a, o or u.

B Words ending in ce change the e to i before ous:

grace, gracious

space, spacious

malice, malicious

vice, vicious

358

The suffix ful

When full is added to a word the second l is dropped:

beauty + full = beautiful (but note adverb form beautifully)

use + full = useful (but note adverb form usefully)

If the word to which the suffix is added ends in ll the second I is dropped here also: skill + full

= skilful.

Note full + fill = fulfil.

359

Words ending in y

Words ending in y following a consonant change the y to i before any suffix except ing:

carry + ed = earned

but

carry + ing = carrying

happy + !y = happily

hurry + ing = hurrying

sunny + er = sunnier y following a vowel does not change:

obey + ed = obeyed

play + er = player For plural forms of nouns, see 12.

360ie and ei

The normal rule is that i comes before e except after c:

believe, sieve but deceive, receipt There are however the following exceptions:

beige

feint

heir

reign

their

counterfeit

foreign

inveigh

rein

veil

deign

forfeit

inveigle

seize

vein

eiderdown

freight

leisure

skein

weigh

eight

heifer

neigh

sleigh

weight

either

height

neighbour

sleight weir

feign

heinous

neither

surfeit

weird

361 Hyphens

A Compound words are formed by linking two or more words to make one unit. We can write the compound:

(a)as one word: bystander, hairdresser, teacup

(b)as two or more words: amusement arcade, post office

(c)with a hyphen: launching-pad, lay-by, tooth-brush

It is impossible in most cases to give a firm rule on when a hyphen should be used. When a compound has become familiar through constant use, the hyphen can be omitted: layby, toothbrush. This, however, does not always happen and a native English writer is quite capable of writing toothbrush, tooth brush or tooth-brush at different times.

If the compound is formed of monosyllables, it is more likely to be written as one word. In cases of doubt it is better to omit hyphens or consult a modem dictionary.

B Hyphens are necessary;

(a) when pronunciation or meaning might be unclear without them: co-operate re-cover (= cover again)

(b) when words form a compound in a particular sentence: a do-it-yourself shop

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ago-as-you-please railway ticket

(c)in adjective phrases dealing with age, size, weight and duration of time:

a five-year-old child

a ten-ton vehicle

a six-foot wall

a five-minute interval

Note that the compound is not in the plural form: no s. Adverb/participle compounds used as adjectives are commonly hyphenated, especially when there is a danger of misunderstanding:

low-flying aircraft

quick-dissolving sugar

C

Hyphens are used in a temporary way to divide a word at the end of a line. The

division must be made at a natural break in the word, i.e. between syllables;

dis-cauraged

look-ing

inter-val

A monosyllable should not be divided.

38

Phrasal verbs

362Introduction

In modern English it is very usual to place prepositions or adverbs after certain verbs so as to obtain a variety of meanings:

give away = give to someone/anyone give up = abandon (a habit or attempt) look after = take care of

look for = search for, seek look out = beware

The student need not try to decide whether the combination is verb + preposition or verb + adverb, but should consider the expression as a whole.

It is also important to learn whether the combination is transitive (i.e. requires an object) or

intransitive (i.e. cannot have an object):

look for is transitive: l am looking for my passport. look out is intransitive: Look out! This ice isn't safe!

Each of the combinations given in the following pages wil! be marked 'tr' (= transitive) or 'intr' (= intransitive), and the examples of the use of each will help to emphasize this distinction.

Note that it is possible for a combination to have two or more different meanings, and to be transitive in one/some of these and intransitive in others. For example, take off can mean 'remove'- It is then a transitive expression:

He took off his hat.

take off can also mean 'rise from the ground' (used of aircraft). Here it is intransitive:

The plane took off at ten o 'clock.

Transitive expressions: the position of the object Noun objects are usually placed at the end of these expressions:

I am looking for my glasses.

With some expressions, however, they can be placed either at the end or immediately after the verb, i.e. before the short word. We can say:

He took off his coat or He took his coat off.

Pronoun objects are sometimes placed at the end of the expression: l am looking for them.

But they are more often placed immediately after the verb:

He took it off.

This position is usual before the following short words: up, down, in, out, away, off and on (except when used in the expression call on = visit).

Examples given of the use of each expression will show all possible positions of noun or pronoun objects in the following way:

I'll give this old coat away. (give away this old coat/give it away)

i.e. with this expression the noun object can come before or after the away; the pronoun object must come before the away. When only one example is given the student may assume that the pronoun object has the same position as the noun object,

C When these expressions are followed by a verb object the gerund form of the verb is used:

He kept on blowing his horn.

Where gerunds are usual this will be shown by examples. Note that some expressions can be followed by an infinitive:

It is up to you to decide this for yourself.

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Some of the younger members called on the minister to resign. The lecturer set out to show that most illnesses were avoidable.

go on can be followed by either infinitive or gerund but there is a considerable difference in meaning. See 270 A.

363 Verb + preposition/adverb combinations

account

account for (tr) == give a good reason for, explain satisfactorily (some action or expenditure):

A treasurer must account/or the money he spends.

He has behaved in the most extraordinary way; I can't account for his actions at all/I can't account for his behaving like that.

allow

allow for (tr) = make provision in advance for, take into account (usually some additional requirement, expenditure, delay etc.):

It is 800 kilometres and I drive at 100 k.p.h., so I'll be there in eight hours. ~ But you'll have to allow for delays going through towns and for stops for refuelling.

Allowing for depreciation your car should be worth £2,000 this time next year. answer

answer back (intr), answer somebody back = answer a reproof impudently:

FATHER: Why were you so late last night? you weren't in till 2a.m. SON: You should have been asleep.

FATHER: Don't answer me back. Answer my question.

ask

ask after/for somebody = ask for news of:

I met Tom at the party; he asked after you. (asked how you were/how you were getting on)

ask for

(a) = ask to speak to:

Go to the office and ask for my secretary.

(b) = request, demand:

The men asked/or more pay and shorter hours.

ask someone in (object before in) = invite him to enter the house:

He didn't ask me in: he kept me standing at the door while he read the message. ask someone out (object before out) = invite someone to an entertainment or to a meal (usually in a public place):

She had a lot of friends and was usually asked out in the evenings, so she seldom spent an evening at home.

back

back away (intr) = step or move back slowly (because confronted by some danger or unpleasantness):

When he took a gun out everyone backed away nervously.

back out (intr) = withdraw (from some joint action previously agreed on), discontinue or refuse to provide previously promised help or support:

He agreed to help but backed out when he found how difficult it was. back somebody up = support morally or verbally:

The headmaster never backed up his staff, (backed them up) If a parent complained about a teacher he assumed that the teacher was in the wrong.

be

be against (tr) = be opposed to (often used with gerund):

I'm for doing nothing till the police arrive./I'm against doing anything till the police arrive. be away (intr) = be away from home/this place for at least a night.

be back (intr) = have returned after a long or short absence:

I want to see Mrs Pitt. Is she in? ~ No. I'm afraid she's out at the moment or

No, I'm afraid she's away for the weekend. ~ When wilt she be back? ~ She'll be back in half an hour/next week.

be for (tr) = be in favour of (often used with gerund). be in (intr) = be at home/in this building.

be in for (tr) = be about to encounter (usually something unpleasant):

Did you listen to the weather forecast? I'm afraid we're in for a bumpy/light.

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If you think that the work is going to be easy you're in for a shock. be over (intr) = be finished:

The storm is over now; we can go on.

be out (intr) = be away from home/from this building for a short time-not overnight. be up (intr) = be out of bed:

Don't expect her to answer the doorbell at eight o 'clock on Sunday morning. She won't be up.

be up to (tr) = be physically or intellectually strong enough (to perform a certain action). The object is usually it. Chough a gerund is possible:

After his illness the Minister continued in office though he was no

longer up to the work/up to doing the work. be up to something/some mischief/some trick/no good = be occupied or busy with some mischievous act:

Don't trust him; he is up to something/some trick.

The boys are very quiet. I wonder what they are up to. Note that the object of up to here is aiways some very indefinite expression such as these given above. It is never used with a particular action.

it is up to someone (often followed by an infinitive) = it is his responsibility or duty; If is up to the government to take action on violence.

I havehelped you as much as I can. Now if is u? to you. (You must continue by your own efforts.)

bear

bear out (tr) = confirm: .

This report bears out my theory, (bears my theory out/bears it out) bear up (intr) = support bad news bravely, hide feelings of grief:

The news of her death was a great shock to him but he bore up bravely and none of us realized how much he felt it.

blow

blow out (tr) = extinguish (a flame) by blowing:

The mind blew out the candle, (blew the candle out/blew it out) blow up (tr or intr)

(a) = destroy by explosion, explode, be destroyed:

They blew up the bridges so that the enemy couldn't follow them. (blew the bridges up/blew them up) Just as we got to the bridge it blew up.

(b) = fill with air, inflate, pump up:

The children blew up their balloons and threw them into the air. (blew the balloons up/blew them up)

boil

boil away (intr) = be boiled until all (the liquid) has evaporated:

I put the kettle on the gas ring and then went away and forgot about it. When I returned, the water had all boiled away and the flame had burnt a hole in the kettle.

boil over (intr) = to rise and flow over the sides of the container (used only of hot liquids): The milk boiled over and there was a horrible smell of burning.

eak

break down figures = take a total and sub-divide it under various headings so as to give additional information:

You say that lO.OWpeople use this library. Could you break that down into age-groups? (say how many of these are under 25, over 50 etc.) break down a door etc. = cause to collapse by using force: The firemen had to break down the door to get into the burning

house, (break the door down/break it down) break down (intr) = collapse, cease to function properly, owing to some fault or weakness:

(a) Used of people, it normally implies a temporary emotional collapse:

He broke down when telling me about his SOH'S tragic d«ath. (He was overcome by his sorrow; he wept.)

(b) It can express collapse of mental resistance-

At first he refused to admit his guilt hut when he was shown the evidence he broke down and confessed.

(c) When used of health it implies a serious physical collapse:

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After years of overwork his health broke down and he had to retire.

(d) It is very often used of machines:

The car broke down when we were driving through the desert and it took us two days to repair it.

(e) It can be used of negotiations:

The negotiations broke down (were discontinued) because neither side would compromise. break in (intr), break into (tr)

(a) = enter by force:

Thieves broke in and stole the silver. The house was broken into when the owner was on holiday.

(b) = interrupt someone by some sudden remark:

I was telling them about my travels when he broke in with a story of his own. break in (a young horse/pony etc.) (tr) = train him for use:

You cannot ride or drive a horse safely before he has been broken in. break off (tr or intr) = detach or become detached:

He took a bar of chocolate and broke off a bit. (broke a bit off/broke it off)

A piece of rock broke off and fell into the pool at the foot of the cliff. break off (tr) = terminate (used of agreements or negotiations):

Ann has broken off her engagement to Tom. (broken her

engagement off/broken it off) break off (intr) = stop talking suddenly, interrupt oneself: They were in the middle of an argument but broke off when someone

came into the room. break out (intr) (a) = begin (used of evils such as wars, epidemics, fires etc.):

War broke out on 4 August.

(b) = escape by using force from a prison etc.:

They locked him up in a room but he broke out. (smashed the door and escaped)

The police are looking/or two men who broke out of prison last night. break up (tr or intr) = disintegrate, cause to disintegrate:

If that ship stays there she will break up/she will be broken up by the waves.

The old ship was towed away to be broken up and sold as scrap. Divorce breaks up a lot a/families, (breaks families up/breaks them up)

break up (intr) = terminate (used of school terms, meetings, parties etc.): The school broke up on 30 July and all the boys went home for the holidays.

The meeting broke up in confusion. bring

bring someone round (tr; object usually before round)

(a)== persuade someone to accept a previously opposed suggestion: After a lot of argument I brought him round to my point of view.

(b)= restore to consciousness:

She fainted with the pain but a little brandy soon brought her round. bring a person or thing round (tr; object usually before round) = bring him/it to my/your/his house:

I have finished that book that you lent me; I'll bring it round (to your house) tonight. bring up (tr)

(a) = educate and train children:

She brought up her children to be truthful, (brought her children up/brought them up)

(b) = mention:

At the last committee meeting, the treasurer brought u? the question of raising the annual subscription, (brought the question up/brought it u?)

bum

bum down (tr or intr) = destroy, or be destroyed completely by fire (used of buildings): The nwb burnt down the embassy, {burnt the embassy

down/burnt it down)

The hotel bumf down before help came. call

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1 call meaning 'visit' (for a short time) call at a place:

I called at the bank and arranged to transfer some money.

call for = visit a place to collect a person or thing:

I am going to a pop concert with Tom. He is calling for me at eight so I must be ready then. Let's leave our suitcases in the left luggage office and call for them later on when we have the car.

cal! in is intransitive, and has the same meaning as look in and the colloquial drop in: Call in/Look in on your way home and tell me how the interview went. call on a person: He called on all the housewives in the area and asked them to sign the petition.

i Other meanings of call for/in/on

call for (tr) = require, demand (the subject here is often an impersonal word or phrase such as: the situation/this sort of work/this etc.; the object is then usually some quality, e.g. courage/patience/a steady hand etc.):

The situation calls for tact.

You 've got the job! This calls for a celebration. But it can also be used with a personal subject:

The workers are calling/or strike action.

The relations of the dead men are calling for an inquiry. call in a person/call him in = send for him/ask him to come to the house to perform some service, send for is more authoritative than call in which is therefore a more polite form:

/; was tw late to call in an electrician, (call an electrician in/call him in)

There is some mystery about his death; She police have been called in. call on somebody (usually + infinitive) = ask him to do something/ask him to help. This is a rather formal way of making a request and is chiefly used on formal occasions or in speeches etc. There is usually the idea that the person called upon will consider it his duty to comply with the request:

The president called upon his people to make sacrifices for the good of their country.

The chairman called on the secretary to read the minutes of the last meeting.

. Other combinations with call

call off (Cr) = cancel something not yet started, or abandon something already in progress: They had to call off (= cancel) the match as the ground was too

wet to play on. (call the match off/call it off)

When the fog got thicker the search was called off. (abandoned) call out (tr) = summon someone to leave his house to deal with a situation outside. It is often used of troops when they are required to leave their barracks to deal with civil disturbances:

The police couldn 't control the mob so troops were called out.

The Fire Brigade was called out several times on the night of 5 November to put out fires started by fireworks. Doctors don't much like being called out at night. call up (tr)

(a) = summon for military service:

In countries where there is conscription men are called up at the age of eighteen, (call up men/call men up/call them up)

(b) = telephone:

/ called Tom up and told him the news. (called up Tom/called him up) care

not to care about (tr) = to be indifferent to:

The professor said that he was interested only in research; he didn 't really care about students. care for (tr)

(a)= like (seldom used in the affirmative): He doesn't care for films about war.

(b)= look after (not much used except in the passive):

The house looked well cared/or, (had been well looked after/was in good condition) carry

carry on (intr) = continue (usually work or duty):

/ can't carry on alone any longer: I'll have to get help. carry on with (tr) is used similarly: The doctor told her to carry on with the treatment. carry out (tr) = perform (duties), obey (orders, instructions), fulfil (threats):

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You are not meant to think for yourself; you are here to carry out my orders.

The Water Board carried out their threat to cut off our water supply. (They threatened to do it and they 'did it.)

He read the instructions but he didn 'f carry them out. catch

catch up with (tr), catch up (tr or intr) = overtake, but not pass:

I started last in the race but I soon caught up with the others. (caught them up/caught up) You 've missed a whole term; you 'II have to work hard to catch up with the rest of the class, (catch them up/catch up)

clean

clean out (tr) a room/cupboard/drawer etc. == clean and tidy it thoroughly: / must clean out the spare room. (clean the spare room

out/clean it out) clean up (tr) a mess, e.g. anything spilt: Clean up any spilt paint, (clean the spilt paint up/clean it up)

clean up (intr) is used similarly:

These painters always clean up when they've finished, (leave the place dean) clear

clear away (tr) = remove articles, usually in order to make space: Could you clear away these papers? (clear these papers away/clear them away) clear away (intr) = disperse:

The clouds soon cleared away and if became quite warm. clear off (intr) from an open space, clear out (intr) of a room, building = go away (colloquial: as a command it is definitely rude): 'You clear off,' said the farmer angrily. 'You've no right to put your

caravans in my field without even asking my permission.' Clear out! If I find you in this building again, I'll report you to the police.

clear out (tr) a room/cupboard/drawer etc. = empty it, usually to make room for something else:

I'll clear out this drawer and you can put your things in it. (clear

this drawer out/clear it out) clear up (intr) = become fine after clouds or rain:

The sky looks a bit cloudy now but I think if wilt dear up. clear up (tr or intr) = make tidy and clean:

When you are cooking it's best to clear up as you go, instead of leaving everything to the end and having a terrible pile of things to deal with.

Clear up this mess. (clear this mess up/clear it up) clear up (tr)

(a) = finish (some work which stiil remains to be done):

/ have some letters which I must clear up before I leave tonight.

(b) = solve (a mystery):

In a great many detective stories when the police are baffled an amateur detective comes along and clears up the mystery, (clears it up)

close

close down (tr or intr) = shut permanently (of a shop or business): Trade was so bad that many small shops closed down and big shops closed some of their branches down. (closed down some branches/closed them down)

close in (intr) = come nearer, approach from ail sides (used of mist, darkness, enemies etc.): As the mist was closing in we decided to stay where we were. close up (intr) = come nearer together (of people in a line):

I/you children closed up a bit there'd be room for another one on this seat.

come

come across/upon (tr) = find by chance:

When I was looking/or my passport I came across these old photographs.

come along/on (intr) = come with me, accompany me. 'Come on' is often said to someone who is hesitating or delaying:

Come on, or we'll be Sate. come away (intr) = leave (with me):

Come away now. It's time to go home. come away/off (intr) = detach itself:

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When I picked up the teapot the handle came away in my hand. come in (intr), come into (tr) = enter:

Someone knocked at my door and I said, 'Come in.'

Come into the garden and I'll show you my rases. come off (intr)

(a) = succeed, of a plan or scheme (used in negative):

I'm afraid that scheme of yours won 'I come off. It needs more capita! than you have available.

(b) = take place; happen as arranged:

When is the wedding coming off? ~ Next June. If we say The duchess was So have opened the bazaar we imply that this plan was made but didn't come off. (She arranged to open it but later had to cancel this arrangement.)

(c) = end its run (of a play, exhibition etc.):

'Lady Windermere's Fan' is coming off next week. You'd better hurry if you want to see it. come out (intr)

(a) = be revealed, exposed (the subject here is normally the truth/the facts/the whole story etc. and usually refers to facts which the people concerned were trying to keep hidden, i.e. scandals etc.):

They deceived everybody till they quarrelled among themselves; then one publicly denounced the others and the whole truth came out.

(b) = be published (of books):

Her new novel will be coming out in time for the Christmas sales.

(c) =- disappear (of stains):

Tomato stains don't usually come out. come round (intr)

(a) = finally accept a previously opposed suggestion:

Her father at first refused to let her study abroad but he came round (to it) in theend. (said she could go)

(b) = come to my (your/his etc.) house;

I'll come round after dinner and tell you the plan.

come round/to (intr; stress on to) = recover consciousness:

When we found him he was unconscious but he came round/to in half an hour and explained that he had been attacked and robbed.

come up (intr)

(a) = rise to the surface:

A diver with an aqualung doesn 't have to keep coming up for air; he can stay underwater/or quite a long time. Weeds are coming up everywhere.

(b) = be mentioned:

The question of the caretaker's wages came up at the last meeting-come up (intr), come up to (tr) = approach, come dose enough to . talk:

A policeman was standing a few yards away. He came up to me and said, 'You can't park here.'

crop

crop up (intr) = appear, arise unexpectedly or by accident (the subject is normally an abstract noun such as difficulties/the subject etc. or a pronoun):

At first all sorts of difficulties crop/fed up and delayed us. Later we learnt how to anticipate these.

cut

cut down a tree = fell it:

If you cut down all the trees you will ruin the land. (cut the trees down/cut them down) , cut down (tr) = reduce in size or amount:

We must cut down expenses or we 'II be getting into debt. : 'This article is too long,' said the editor. 'Could you cut it down to 2,000 words?'

cut in (intr) = slip into traffic lane ahead of another car when there isn't room to do this safely: Accidents are often caused by drivers cutting in. cut off (tr) = disconnect, discontinue supply (usually of gas, water. electricity etc.). The object can either be the commodity or the person who suffers:

The Company has cut off our electricity supply because we haven't paid our bill. (cut our supply off/cut it off)

They've cut off the water/our water supply temporarily because they are repairing one of the main pipes.

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(Video) Asking for Directions: ಕನ್ನಡ ವಿವರಣೆ

We were cut off in the middle of our (telephone) conversation. (This might be accidental or a deliberate action by the switchboard operator.)

cut someone off = form a barrier between him and safety (often used in connexion with the tide, especially in the passive):

We were cut off by the tide and had to be rescued by boat.

be cut off (intr) = be inconveniently isolated (the subject is usually a place or residents in a certain place):

You will be completely cut off if you go to live in that village because there is a bus only once a week.

cut out (tr)

(a) = cut from a piece of cloth/paper etc. a smaller piece of a desired shape: When I am making a dress I mark the cloth with chalk and then cut

it out. (cut out the dress/cut the dress out)

Young people often cut out photographs of their favourite pop stars and stick ihem to the walls.

(b) = omit, leave out:

If you want to get thin you must cut out sugar, (cut it out) be cut out for (tr) = be fitted or suited for (used of people, usually in the negative):

His father got him a job in a bank but it soon became clear that he was not cut out for that kind of work. (He wasn't happy and was not good at the work.) cut up (tr) •=• cut into small pieces:

They cut down the tree and cut it up for firewood, (cut the tree up/cut up the tree)

die

die away (intr) = become gradually fainter till inaudible:

They waited till the sound of the guard's footsteps died away. die down (intr) = become gradually calmer and finally disappear (of riots, fires, excitement etc.):

When the excitement had died down the shopkeepers took down their shutters and reopened their shops.

die out (intr) = become extinct (of customs, races, species of animals etc.): Elephants would die out if men could shoot as many as they wished.

do

do away with (tr) = abolish:

The government should do away with the regulations restricting drinking hours. do up (tr) = redecorate:

When I do this room up I'll paint the walls cream, (do up this

room/do it up) do without (tr) = manage in the absence of a person or thing:

We had to do without petrol during the fuel crisis. The object is sometimes understood but not mentioned:

If there isn't any milk we'll have to do without (it). draw

draw back (intr) =; retire, recoil;

/t's too late to draw back now; the plans are ail made. draw up (tr) = make a written plan or agreement:

My solicitor drew up the lease and we both signed it. (drew it up) draw up (intr) = stop (of vehicles):

The car drew up at the kerb and the driver got out.

op

drop in (intr) = pay a short unannounced visit:

He dropped in for a few minutes to ask if he could borrow your power

drill- (drop in is more colloquial than 'call in'.) drop out (intr) = withdraw, retire from a scheme or plan:

We planned to hire a coach for the excursion but now so many people have dropped out that it will not be needed.

iter

enter for (tr) = become a competitor/candidate (for a contest, examination, etc,): Twelve thousand competitors have entered for the next London

Marathon.

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de

fade away (intr) = disappear, become gradually fainter (usually of sounds):

The band moved on and the music faded away. II

fall back (intr) = withdraw, retreat (this is a deliberate action, quite different from fall behind, which is involuntary);

As the enemy advanced we fell back. fall back on (tr) = use in the absence of something better:

We had to fall back on dried milk as fresh milk wasn't available. He fell back on the old argument that if you educate women they

won't be such good wives and mothers. fall behind (intr) = slip into the rear through inability to keep up with the others, fail to keep up an agreed rate of payments:

At the beginning the whole party kept together but by the end of the day those who were less fit had fallen behind.

He fell behind with his rent and the landlord began to become

impatient. fall in with someone's plans = accept them and agree to co-operate:

We'd better fall in with his suggestion for the sake of peace. fall in (intr) of troops etc- = get into line fall out (intr) of troops etc- = leave the lines:

The troops fell in and were inspected. After the parade they fell out

and went back to their barracks. fall off (intr) = decrease (of numbers, attendance etc.): Orders have been falling off lately; we need a new advertising

campaign.

If the price of seats goes up much more theatre attendances will begin to/all off.

fall on (tr) = attack violently (the victim has normally no chance to defend himself as the attackers are too strong; it is also sometimes used of hungry men who attack their food when they get it):

The mob fell on the killers and clubbed them to death. The starving men fell on the food. (devoured it)

fall out (intr) = quarrel:

When thieves fall out honest men gel their own. (proverb; i.e. get back their property) fall through (intr) = fail to materialize (of plans): My plans to go to Greece fell through because the journey turned out to be much more expensive than I had expected.

feed

be fed up (intr), be fed up with (tr) = be completely bored (slang);

I'm fed up with this wet weather. I'm fed up with wailing; I'm going home. feel

feel up to (tr) = fee! strong enough (to do something):

I don't feel up to tidying the kitchen now. I'll do it in the morning, I don't fee! up to it. fill

fill in/up forms etc. = complete them:

I had to fill in three forms to get my new passport, (fill three forms in/fill them in) find

find out (tr) = discover as a result of conscious effort;

In the end I found out what was wrong with my hi-fi. The dog found out the way to open the door. (found it out) find someone out = find that he has been doing something wrong (this discovery is usually a surprise because the person has been trusted):

After robbing the till for months the cashier was found out. fix

fix up (tr) = arrange:

the club has already fixed up several matches for next season. (fixed several matches up/fixed them up)

get

get about (intr) = circulate; move or travel in a general sense:

The news got about that he had won the first prize in the state lottery and everybody began asking him for money.

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He is a semi-invalid now and can't get about as well as he used to. get away (intr) = escape, be free to leave:

Don 'I ask him how he is because if he starts talking about his health you'll never get away from him.

I had a hi to do in the office and didn't get away till eight. get away with (tr) = perform some illegal or wrong act without being punished, usually without even being caught:

He began forging cheques and at first he got away with it but in the end he was caught and sent to prison.

get back ftr) = recover possession of:

If you lend him a book he'll lend it to someone else and you'll never

get it back. (get back your book/get your book back) get back (intr) = reach home again:

We spent the whole day in the hills and didn't get back till dark. get off (intr) = be acquitted or receive no punishment (compare with gel away with it, which implies that the offender is not even caught):

He was tried for theft but got off because there wasn't sufficient evidence against him. (was acquitted)

The boy had to appear before a magistrate but he got off as it was his first offence, (received no punishment) get on (intr), get on with (tr)

(a) = make progress, be successful:

How is he getting on at school? He is getting on very well with his English.

(b) = live, work etc., amicably with someone:

He is a pleasant friendly man who gets on well with nearly everybody.

How are you and Mr Pitt getting on? get out (intr) = escape from, leave (an enclosed space): Don't wory about the snake. It's in a box. It can't get out.

News of the Budget got out before it was officially announced.

I'm so busy that I don't very often get out. (out of the house) Note that the imperative 'Get out', except when it means 'descend' (from a vehicle), is very rude. get out of (tr) = free oneself from an obligation or habit:

I said that I'd help him. Now I don't want to but I can't get out of it. (free myself from my promise)

He says that he smokes too much but he can't get out of the habit.

Some people live abroad to get out of paying heavy taxes. . get over (tr) = recover from (illness, distress or mental weakness):

He is just getting over a bad heart attack.

I can't get over her leaving her husband like that. (I haven't recovered from the surprise; I am astonished,)

He used to be afraid of heights but he has got over that now. get it over (the object is usually it which normally represents something unpleasant) = deal with it and be finished with it:

If you have logo to the dentist why not go at once and get it over? (Be careful not to confuse this with get over it, which is quite

different.)

get round a person = coax him into letting you do what you want: Giris can usually get round their fathers.

get round a difficulty/regulation = find some solution to it/evade it:

If we charge people for admission we will have to pay entertainment tax on our receipts: but we can get round this regulation by saying that we are charging not for admission but for refreshments. Money paid/or refreshments is not taxed.

get through (tr or intr) = finish a piece of work, finish successfully: He got through his exam all right, (passed it)

get through (intr) = get into telephone communication:

/ am frying to call London but I can't get through; I think all the

lines are engaged. get up (tr) = organize, arrange (usually an amateur entertainment or a charitable enterprise):

They got up a concert in aid of cancer research. (They got it up.) get up (intr) = rise from bed, rise to one's feet, mount:

I get up at seven o' clock every morning. (For get used to mean enter/leave vehicles, see 93 D.)

give

give something away = give it to someone (who need not be mentioned):

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I'll give this old coat away. (give away this old coat away/give it away) give someone away (object before away) - betray him:

He said that he was not an American but his accent gape him away.

(told us that he was an American) give back (tr) = restore (a thing) to its owner: / must call at She library to give back this book. (to give this book

back/to give it back) give in (intr) = yield, cease to resist:

At first he wouldn't let her drive the car but she was so persuasive that eventually he gave in. give out (tr)

(a) = announce verbally:

They gave out the names of the winners, (gave the names out/gave them out)

(b) = distribute, issue:

The teacher gave out the books, (gave one/some to each pupil) give out (intr) = become exhausted (of supplies etc.):

The champagne gave out long before the end of the reception.

His patience gave out and he slapped the child hard. give up (tr or intr) = abandon an attempt, cease trying to do something:

I tried to climb the wall but after I had failed three times I gave up. (gave up the attempt/gave the attempt up/gave it up)

A really determined person never gives up/never gives up trying. give up (tr) = abandon or discontinue a habit, sport, study, occupation:

Have you given up drinking whisky before breakfast? He gave up cigarettes, (gave them up)

He tried to leam Greek but soon got tired of it and gave it up. give oneself up (object before up) = surrender:

He gave himself up to despair.

He was cold and hungry after a week on the run so he gave himself up to the police.

go ahead (intr) = proceed, continue, lead the way:

While she was away he went ahead with the work and got a tot done.

You go ahead and I"It follow; I'm not quite ready. go away (intr) = leave, leave me, leave this place:

Are you going away for your holiday? ~ No, I'm staying at home.

Please go away; I can't work unless I am alone. go back (intr) = return, retire, retreat; I'm never going back to that hotel. It is most uncomfortable. go back on (tr) = withdraw or break (a promise):

He went back on his promise to tell nobody about this. (He told people about it. contrary to his promise.) go down fintr)

(a) = be received with approval (usually of an idea):

I suggested that she should look for a job but this suggestion did not go down at all well.

(b) = become less, be reduced (of wind, sea, weight, prices etc.):

During her illness her weight went down from 50 kilos to 40. The wind went down and the sea became quite calm.

go for (tr) = attack:

The cat went for the dog and chased him out of the hall. go in for (tr) = be especially interested in. practise; enter for (a competition):

This restaurant goes in for vegetarian dishes, (specializes in them)

She plays a lot of golf and goes in for all the competitions. go into (tr) = investigate thoroughly:

'We shall have to go into this very carefully,' said the detective. go off (intr)

(a)= explode (of ammunition or fireworks), be fired (of guns, usually accidentally): As he was cleaning his gun if went off and killed him.

(b)= be successful (of social occasions):

The party went off very well. (everyone enjoyed it)

(c) = start a journey, leave:

He went off in a great hurry. go on (intr) = continue a journey:

Go on till you come to the crossroads. go on (intr), go on with (tr), go on + gerund = continue any action:

Please go on playing; I like it.

Go on with the treatment. It is doing you good. go on + infinitive:

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He began by describing the route and went on to tell us what the trip would probably cost. (He continued his speech and told us etc.)

go out (intr)

(a) = leave the house:

She is always indoors; she doesn't go out enough.

(b)= Join in social life, leave one's house for entertainments etc. She is very pretty and goes out a lot.

(c)= disappear, be discontinued (of fashions):

Crinolines went out about the middle of the last century.

(d) = be extinguished (of lights, fires etc.):

The light went out and we were left in the dark. go over (tr) = examine, study or repeat carefully:

He went over the plans again and discovered two very serious mistakes. go round (intr)

(a)= suffice (for a number of people): Will there be enough wine to go round?

(b)= go to his/her/your etc. house:

/ said that I 'd go round and see her during the weekend, (go to her house)

go through (tr) = examine carefully (usually a number of things; go through is like look through but more thorough):

There is a mistake somewhere; we'll have to go through the accounts and see where it is.

The police went through their files to see if they could find any fingerprints to match those that they had found on the handle of the weapon. go through (tr) = suffer, endure:

No one knows what I went through while I was waiting for the verdict, (how much I suffered)

go through with (tr) = finish, bring to a conclusion (usually in the face of some opposition or difficulty):

He went through with his plan although all his friends advised him to abandon it. go up (intr)

(a) = rise (of prices):

The price of strawberries went up towards the end of the season.

(b) = burst into flames (and be destroyed), explode (used of whole buildings, ships etc.): When the fire reached the cargo of chemicals the whole ship went up.

(blew up)

Someone dropped a cigarette end into a can of petrol and the whole garage went up inflames.

go without (tr) = do without. (But it only applies to things. 'Go without a person' has only a literal meaning: i.e. it means 'start or make a journey without him'.)

grow

grow out of (tr) = abandon, on becoming older, a childish (and often bad) habit: He used to tell a lot of lies as a young boy but he grew out of that

later on. grow up (intr) = become adult:

'I'm going to be a pop star when I grow up,' said the boy.

hand

hand down (tr) = bequeath or pass on (traditions /information/ possessions):

This legend has been handed down from father to son. hand in (tr) = give by hand (to someone who need not be mentioned because the person spoken to knows already): / handed in my resignation, (gave it to my employer)

Someone handed this parcel in yesterday, (handed it in) hand out (tr) = distribute: He was standing at the door of the theatre handing out leaflets.

(handing leaflets out/handing them out) hand over (tr or intr) = surrender authority or responsibility to another:

The outgoing Minister handed over his department to his

successor, (handed his department over/handed it over) hand round (tr) = give or show to each person present:

The hostess handed round coffee and cakes, (handed them

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round) hang

hang about/around (tr or intr) = loiter or wait (near):

He hung about/around the entrance all day, hoping/or a chance to speak to the director. hang back (intr) = show unwillingness to act: Everyone approved of the scheme hut when we asked for volunteers

they all hung back. hang on to (tr) = retain, keep in one's possession (colloquial): I'd hang on to that old coat if I were you. It might be useful.

hold

hold off (intr) = keep at a distance, stay away (used of rain):

The rain fortunately held off till after the school sports day. hold on (intr) = wait (especially on the telephone):

Yes. Mr Pitt is in. If you hold on for a moment I'll get him for you. { hold on/out (intr) = persist in spite of, endure hardship or danger:

The survivors on the rock signalled that they were short of water but could hold out for another day.

' The strikers held out for six weeks before agreeing to arbitration. hold up (tr)

(a) = stop by threats or violence (often in order to rob):

The terrorists held up the train and kept the passengers as hostages. Masked men held up the cashier and robbed the bank. (held him up)

(b) = stop, delay (especially used in the passive):

The bus was held up because a tree had fallen across the road.

join

join up (intr) = enlist in one of the armed services: When war was declared he joined up at once. jump

jump at (tr) -= accept with enthusiasm (an offer or opportunity):

He was offered a place in the Himalayan expedition and jumped at the chance. keep

keep somebody back (object before back) = restrain, hinder, prevent from advancing: Frequent illnesses kept him back. (prevented him from making

normal progress) keep down (tr) = repress, control:

IVJia; is the best way to keep down rats? (keep them down)

Try to remember to Sum off the light when you leave the room. I am

trying to keep down expenses, (keep expenses down) keep off (tr or intr) = refrain from walking on, or from coming too close:

'Keep off the grass'. (park notice) keep on = continue:

/ wanted to explain but he kept on talking and didn 't give me a chance to say anything. keep out (tr) = prevent from entering: My shoes are very old and don't keep out the wafer, (keep the water out/keep it out) keep out (intr) = stay outside:

'Private. Keep out.' (notice on door) keep up (tr) = maintain (an effort); He began walking at four miles an hour but he couldn't keep up that speed and soon began to walk more slowly, (he couidn 't keep it up) It is difficult to keep up a conversation with someone who only says 'Yes' and 'No'.

keep up (intr), keep up with (tr) = remain abreast of someone who is advancing; advance at the same pace as:

A runner can't keep up with a cyclist.

The work that the class is doing is too difficult for me. I won't be able to keep up (with them).

It is impossible to keep up with the news unless you read the newspapers.

knock

knock off (tr or intr) = stop work for the day (colloquial):

English workmen usually knock offat 5.30 or 6.00 p.m. We knock off work in time for tea.

knock out (tr) = hit someone so hard that he falls unconscious:

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In the finals of the boxing championship he knocked out his opponent, who was carried out of the ring. (knocked his opponent out/knocked him out)

lay

lay in (tr) == provide oneself with a sufficient quantity (of stores etc.) to last for some time: She expected a shortage of dried fruit so she laid in a large supply. lay out (tr) = plan gardens, building sites etc.:

Le Noire laid out the gardens at Versailles, (laid the gardens

out/laid them out) lay up (tr) = store carefully till needed again (used of ships, cars etc.): Before he went to Brazil for a year, he laid up his car, as he didn'!

want to sell it. (laid it up) be laid up (of a person) = be confined to bed through illness: She was laid up/or weeks with a slipped disk.

lead

lead up to (tr) = prepare the way for, introduce (figuratively):

He wanted to borrow my binoculars, but he didn't say so at once. He led up to it by talking about birdwatching.

leave

leave off (usually intr) = stop (doing something):

He was playing his 'trumpet but I told him to leave off because the neighbours were complaining about the noise. leave out (tr) = omit: We 'II sing our school sang leaving out the last ten verses.

They gave each competitor a number; but they left out No, 13 as no one wanted to have it. (leftNo. 13 out/left it out)

let

let down (tr) = lower;

When she lets her hair down it reaches her waist, (lets down her hair/lets it down)

You can let a coat down (lengthen it) by using the hem. . let someone down (object before down) = disappoint him by failing to act as well as expected, or failing to fulfil an agreement: I promised him thai you would do the work. Why did you let me down

by doing so little?

He said he'd come to help me; but he let me down. He never turned up. let in (tr) = allow to enter, admit:

They let in the ticket-holders, (let the ticket-holders in/ let them in)

I/you mention my name to the door-keeper he will let you in.

let someone off (object before off) = refrain from punishing:

/ thought that the magistrate was going to fine me but he let me off. (Compare with get off,) let out (tr)

(a) = make wider (of clothes):

That boy is getting fatter. You'll have to let out his clothes, (lethis clothes out/let them out)

(b) = allow to leave, release:

He opened the door and let out the dog. (let the dog out/let it out) live

live down a bad reputation = live in such a manner that people will forget it: He has never quite been able to live down a reputation for drinking

too much which he got when he was a young man. (live it down) live in (intr) = live in one's place of work (chiefly used of domestic servants):

ADVERTISEMENT: Cook wanted. £140 a week. Live in. live on (tr) = use as staple food: It is said that/or a certain period of his life Byron lived on vinegar

and potatoes in order to keep thin. live up to (tr) = maintain a certain standard -moral, economic or behavioural;

He had high ideals and tried to live up to them. (he tried to act in accordance with his ideals)

lock

lock up a house (tr or intr; usually intr) = lock all doors:

People usually lock up before they go to bed at night. lock up a person or thing = put in a locked place, i.e. box, safe, prison:

She locked up the papers in her desk. (locked the papers up/locked them up)

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look

look after (tr) = take care of:

Will you look after my parrot when I am away? look ahead (htr) = consider the future so as to make provision for it:

It's lime you looked ahead and made plans for your retirement. look at (tr) = regard:

He looked at the clock and said, 'It is midnight.' look back fintr). look back on (tr) = consider the past:

Looking back, I don't suppose we are any worse now than people were a hundred years ago.

Perhaps some day it will be pleasant to look back on these things.

look back/round (intr) = look behind (literally):

Don't look round now but the woman behind us is wearing the most extraordinary clothes. look for (tr) = search for, seek:

/have lost my watch. Will you help me to look for it? look forward to (tr) = expect with pleasure (often used with gerund)-

/am looking forward to her arrival/to seeing her. look in (intr) = pay a short (often unannounced) visit (= call in):

I'll look in this evening to see how she is. look into (tr) = investigate:

There is a mystery about his death and the police are looking into it. look on ... as (tr) = consider:

Most people look on a television set as an essential piece of furniture.

These children seem to look on their teachers as their enemies. took on (intr) = be a spectator only, not a participator:

Two men were fighting. The rest were looking on. look on (tr), look out on (tr) (used of

windows and houses) = be facing:

His house looks (out) on to the sea. (from his house you can see the sea.) look out (intr) = be watchful, beware:

(to someone just about to cross the road) 'Look out! There's a lorry coming!'

look out for (tr) = keep one's eyes open so as to see something (usually fairly conspicuous) if it presents itself:

/ am going to the party too, so look out for me. look over (tr) = inspect critically, read again, revise quickly (look over is similar to go over but less thorough):

Look over what you've written before handing it to the examiner.

I'm going to look over a house that I'm thinking of buying. look through (tr) = examine a number of things, often in order to select some of them; turn over the pages of a book or newspaper, looking for information:

Look through your old clothes and see if you have anything to give away.

I'd like you So look through these photographs and try to pick out the man you saw.

He looked through the books and decided that he wouldn't like them. look through someone = look at him without appearing to see him, as a deliberate act of rudeness:

She has to be polite to me in the office but when we meet outside she always looks through me.

look up an address/a name/word/train time/telephone number etc. = look for it in the appropriate book or paper, i.e. address book/ dictionary/timetable/directory etc.:

If you don't know the meaningofthe word look it up. (look up the word/look the word up)

I must look up the time of your train, (look for it in the timetable) look somebody up can mean 'visit'. The person visited usually lives at some distance and is not seen very often, look up is therefore different from look in, which implies that the person visited lives quite close:

Any lime you come to London do look me up. (come and see me) I haven't seen Tom forages. I must find out where he lives and look

him up. (look Tom up/look up Tom) look up (intr) == improve (the subject is usually things/business/world affairs/the weather, i.e. nothing very definite):

Business has been very bad lately but things are beginning to look up now.

look someone up and down •= look at him contemptuously, letting your eyes wander from his

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head to his feet and back again:

The policeman looked the drunk man u? and down very deliberately before replying to his question. look up to (tr) = respect:

Schoolboys usually look up to great athletes. look down on (tr) = despise: Small boys often look down on little girls and re/use to play with

them.

She thinks her neighbours look down on her a bit because she's never been abroad.

make

make for (tr) = travel towards:

The escaped prisoner was making/or the coast. make off (intr) = run away (used of thieves etc.):

The boys made off when they saw the policemen. make out (tr)

(a)= discover the meaning of, understand, see. hear etc. clearly: / can't make out the address, he has written it so badly, (make the address out/make it out)

Can you hear what the man with the loud-hailer is saying? I can't make it out at all.

I can't make out why he isn 't here yet.

(b)= state (probably falsely or with exaggeration):

He made out that he was a student looking/or a job. We later learn! that ihis wasn 't true at all.

The English climate isn 'I so bad as some people like to make out.

(c) = write a cheque:

CUSTOMER: Who shall I make it out to? SHOPKEEPER: Make it out to Jones and Company.

make up one's mind = come to a decision:

In the end he made up his mind to go by train. make up a quarrel/make it up = end it:

Isn't it time you and Ann made up your quarrel, (mode it up) make up a story/excuse/explanation = invent it:

/ don't believe your story at all. I think you are just making it up. make up (tr or intr) = use cosmetics:

Most women make up/make up their faces, (make their faces up/make them up)

Actors have So be made up before they appear on stage. make up (tr) = put together, compound, compose:

Take this prescription to the chemist's. They will make it up for you there, (make up the presciption/make the prescription up) NOTICE (in tailor's window): Customers' own materials made up. The audience was made up of very young children.

make up for (tr) = compensate for (the object is very often ;'():

You'll have to work very hard today to make u? for the time you wasted yesterday/to make up for being late yesterday. We aren 't allowed to drink when we are in training but we intend to make up for it after the race is over. (to drink more than usual then)

miss

miss out (tr) = leave out ('leave out' is more usual; see page 3351. mix

mix up (tr) = confuse:

He mixed up the addresses so that no one got the right letters. (mixed them up)

be/get mixed up with = be involved (usually with some rather disreputable person or business):

/ don't want to get mixed up with any illegal organization. move

move in (intr) = move self and possessions into new house, flat, rooms etc.

move out (intr) = leave house/flat etc,, with one's possessions, vacate accommodation: / have found a new flat. The present tenant is moving out this

weekend and I am moving in on Wednesday. move on or up (intr) = advance, go higher: Normally in schools pupils move up every year.

order

order somebody about (object before about) = give him a lot of orders (often regardless of his

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convenience or feeiings):

He is a retired admiral and still has the habit of ordering people about.

pay

pay back (tr), pay someone back (tr or intr) = repay:

/ must pay back the money that I borrowed, (pay the money back/pay it back)

I must pay back Mr Pitt. (pay Mr Pitt back/pay him back)

I must Ray Mr Pitt back the money he lent me. (pay him back the money/pay it back to him) pay someone back/out = revenge oneself:

I'll pay you back for this. (for the harm you have done me.) pay up (intr) = pay money owed in full (there is often a feeling that the payer is reluctant):

Unless you pay up I shall tell my solicitor to write to you. pick

pick out (tr) = choose, select, distinguish from a group:

Here are six rings. Pick out the one you like best. (pick it out)

In an identity parade the witness has to try to pick out the criminal from a group of about eight men. (pick the criminal out/pick him out)

I know that you are in this photograph but I can't pick you out. pick up (tr)

(a)= raise or lift a person or thing, usually from the ground or from a table or chair: He picked up the child and carried him into the house, (picked the

cbi!d up)

She scatters toys all aver the floor and I have to pick them up.

(b)= call for, take with one (in a vehicle):

/ won't have time to come to your house but I could pick you up at the end of your road. The coach stops at the principal hotels to pick up tourists, but only if they arrange this in advance, (pick tourists up/Rick them up) The crew of the wrecked yacht were picked up by helicopter.

(c) = receive (by chance) wireless signals:

Their SOS was picked up by another ship. which informed the lifeboat headquarters.

(d) = acquire cheaply, learn without effort:

Sometimes you pick up wonderful bargains in these markets. Children usually pick up foreign languages very quickly.

point

point out (tr) = indicate, show:

As we drove through the city the guide pointed out the most important buildings, (pointed the buildings out/pointed them out)

pull

pull down (tr) = demolish (used of buildings):

Everywhere elegant old buildings are being pulled down and mediocre modem erections are being put up. (pull down houses/pull them down) pull off (tr) = succeed (the object is normally it):

Much to our surprise he pulled off the deal. (sold the goods/got the contract) (pulled it off)

pull through (tr or intr) = recover from illness/cause someone to recover: We thought she was going to die but her own will-power pulled her through, (tr)

He is very ill but he'll pull through if we look after him carefully. (intr) pull up (intr) = stop (of vehicles):

A lay-by is a space at the side of a main road, where drivers can pull up if they want a rest.

put

put aside/by (tr) = save for future use (usually money), put aside often implies that the money is being saved for a certain purpose:

He puts aside £50 a month to pay for his summer holiday, (puts it aside)

Don't spend all your salary. Try to put something by each month. put away (tr) = put tidily out

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of sight (usually in drawers, cupboards etc.):

Put your toys away, children; it's bedtime, (put away the toys/put

them away) put something back = replace it where you found it/where it belongs:

When you 've finished with the book put it back an the shelf. put back a clock/watch = retard the hands: put the clock back is sometimes used figuratively to mean return to the customs of the past:

MOTHER: Your father and I will arrange a marriage for you when the time comes.

DAUGHTER; You're trying to put the clock back, mother. Parents

don't arrange marriages these days! (put hack the clock/put it back) put down ftr)

(a) = the opposite of pick up:

He picked up the saucepan and put it down at once because the handle was almost red-hot, (put the saucepan down/put it down)

(b) = crush rebellions, movements:

Troops were used to put down the rebellion, (put the rebellion down/put it down)

(c) = write:

Put down his phone number before you forget it. (put the number down/put it down) CUSTOMER (to shop assistant): I’ll take that one. Please put it down

to me/to my account. (enter it in my account) put something down to (tr) = attribute it to:

The children wouldn't answer him, but he wasn't annoyed as he put it down to shyness.

She hasn't been well since she came to this country; I put H down to the climate. put forward a suggestion/proposal etc. = offer it for consideration;

The older members a/the committee are inclined to veto any suggestions put forward by the younger ones. (put a suggestion

forward/put it forward)

put forward/on clocks and watches = advance the hands, put forward is the opposite of put back:

In March people in England put their clocks forward/on an hour.

When summer time ends they put them back an hour. put in a claim = make a claim: He Rut in a claim for compensation because he had lost his luggage

in the train, crash. put in for a job/a post == apply for it:

They are looking/or a lecturer in geography. Why don 't you put in for it? put off an action = postpone it:

Some people Rut of f making their wills till it is too late.

I'll put off my visit to Scotland till the weather is warmer, (put my visit off/put it off) put a person off

(a) = tell him to postpone his visit to you:

I had invited some guests to dinner but I had to put them off because a Rower cut prevented me from cooking anything.

(b) = repel, deter him:

I wanted to see the exhibition but the queue put me off.

Many people who want to come to England are put off by the stories they hear about English weather.

put on clothes/glasses/jewellery = dress oneself etc. The opposite is take off: He put on a black coat so that he would be inconspicuous, (put a

coat on/put it on)

She put on her glasses and took the letter from my hand. put on an expression = assume it: He Rut on anair of indifference, which didn't deceive anybody for a

moment. put on a play = produce/perform it:

The students usually put on a play at the end of the year. put on a light/gas or electric fire/radio = switch it on:

Put on the light, (put the light on/put it on) put out any kind of light or fire = extinguish it; Put out that light, (put the light out/put it out) put someone out (inconvenience him): He is very selfish. He wouldn't put himself out for anyone. be put out = be annoyed: She was very put out when I said that her new summer dress did» 'f

suit her.

put up (tr)

(a) = erect (a building, monument, statue etc.):

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He put up a shed in the garden, (put a shed up/put it up)

(b) = raise (prices):

When She importation of foreign tomatoes was forbidden, home

growers put up their prices, (put their prices up/put them up) put someone up (object usually before up) = give him temporary hospitality:

If you come to Paris I will put you up. You needn 't look for an hotel. put someone up to something (usually some trick) = give him the idea of doing it/tell him how to do it:

He couldn't have thought of thai trick by himself. Someone must have put him up to it. put up with (tr) = bear patiently:

We had to Rut up with a lot of noise when the children were at home. ring

ring up (tr or intr) = telephone:

! rang up the theatre to book seats for tonight, (rang the theatre up/rang them up)

If you can't come ring up and let me know. ring off (intr) = end a telephone call by putting down the receiver:

He rang off before I could ask his name. round

round up (tr) = drive or bring together (people or animals):

The sheepdog rounded up the sheep (= collected them into a group) and drove them through the gate.

On the day after the riots the police rounded up all suspects/ rounded them up. (arrested them)

rub

rub out (tr) =s erase pencil or ink marks with an india-rubber: The child wrote down the wrong word and then rubbed it out.

(rubbed the word out/rubbed out the word) rub up (tr) = revise one's knowledge of a subject: I am going to France; ! must rub up my French, (rub it up)

run

run after (tr) = pursue (see example below).

run away (intr) = flee, desert (one's home/school etc.), elope:

The thief ran away and the policeman ran after him. He ran away from home and got a job in a garage.

run away with (tr) = become uncontrollable (of emotions), gailop off out of rider's control (of horses):

Don't let your emotions runaway with you. His horse ran away with him and he had a bad fall. run away with the idea = accept an idea too hastily:

Don't run away with the idea that lam unsociable; I Just haven't time to go out much.

run down (tr) = disparage, speak ill of:

He is always running down his neighbours, (running his

neighbours down/running them down) run down (intr) == become unwound/discharged (of clocks/batteries etc.):

This torch is useless; the battery has run down. be run down (intr) •= be in poor health after illness, overwork etc.:

He is still run down after his illness and unfit/or work. run into (tr) = collide with (of vehicles): The car skidded and ran into a lamp-post, (struck the lamp-post) run into/across someone = meet him accidentally:

I ran into my cousin in Harrods recently. (I met him.) run out of (tr) = have none left, having consumed all the supply:

I have run out of milk. Put some lemon in your tea instead. run over (tr) = drive over accidentally (in a vehicle):

The drunk man stepped into the road right in front of the oncoming

car. The driver couldn 't stop in time and ran over him. run over (tr or intr) = overflow: He turned on both taps full and left the bathroom. When he came

back he found that the water was running over. /running over the

edge of the bath. run over/through (tr) = rehearse, check or revise quickly: We 've got a few minutes before the train goes, so I'll just run through your instructions again.

run through (tr) •=- consume extravagantly, waste (used of supplies or money):

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He inherited a fortune and ran through it in a year. run up bills = incur them and increase them by continuing to buy things and put them down to one's account:

Her husband said that she must pay for things at once and not run up bills. run up against difficulties/opposition = encounter them/it: If he tries to change the rules of the club he will run up against a lot of opposition.

see

aee about (tr) = make inquiries or arrangements:

Imust see about getting a room ready forhim. see somebody off = accompany an intending traveller to his train/boat/plane etc.:

The station was crowded with boys going back to school and parents who were seeing them off.

see somebody out = accompany a departing guest to the door of the house: When guests leave the host usually sees them out.

Don't bother to come So the door with me. I can see myself out.

see over a house/a building = go into every room, examine it often with a view to buying or renting:

I'm definitely interested in the house. I'd like to see over it. see through (tr) = discover a hidden attempt to deceive:

She pretended that she loved him but he saw through her, and realized thai she was only after his money. (He wasn't taken in by

her/by her pretence. See take in.) see to (tr) = make arrangements, put right, repair: I/you can provide the wine I'll see to the food.

That electric fire isn't safe. You should have it seen to. Please see to if that the door is locked.

sell

sell off (tr) = sell cheaply (what is left of a stock):

ASSISTANT: This line is being discontinued so we are selling off the remainder of our stock: that's why they are so cheap, (selling the rest off/selling it off)

sell out (intr) == sell all that you have of a certain type of article:

When all the seats for a certain performance have been booked, theatres put a notice saying 'Sold out' outside the booking office.

send

be sent down (intr) = be expelled from a university for misconduct: He behaved so badly in college that he was sent down and never got his degree. send for (tr) = summon:

One of our water pipes has burst. We must send for the plumber.

The director sent for me and asked for an explanation. send in (tr) = send to someone (who need not be mentioned beCause the person spoken to knows already):

You must send in your application before Friday, (send it to the

authority concerned) (send your application in/send it in) send on (tr) = forward, send after a person:

If any letters come for you after you have gone I will send them on. (send on yow letters/send your letters on)

set

set in (intr) = begin (a period, usually unpleasant):

Winter has set in early this year. set off (tr) = start (a series of events): That strike set off a series of strikes throughout the country, (set them off) set off/out (intr) = start a journey:

They set out/off at six and hoped to arrive before dark. 'for' is used when the destination is mentioned:

They set out/off for Rome.

set out + infinitive (often show/prove/explain or some similar verb) = begin this undertaking, aim:

In this book the author sets out to prove that the inhabitants a/the

islands came from South America. set up (tr) = achieve, establish (a record): He net up a new record/or the 1.000 metres, (set a new record

up/set it up) set up (intr) = start a new business:

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When he married he left his father's shop and set upon his own. (opened his own shop)

settle

settle down (intr) = become accustomed to. and contented in, a new place, job etc.: He soon settled down in his new school. settle up (intr) = pay money owed:

Tell me what 1 owe you and I'll settle up. shout

shout down (tr) = make a loud noise to prevent a speaker from being heard: Tom tried to make a speech defending himself but the crowd wouldn't listen to his explanation and shouted him down.

The moderate speakers were shouted down. show

show off (tr or intr) = display (skill, knowledge etc.) purely in order to win notice or applause: Although Jules speaks English perfectly, my cousin spoke French to

him all the time just to show off. (to impress us with her knowledge of French)

He is always picking up very heavy things just to show off his strength, (show it off)

shut

shut down ftr or intr) = close down (see page 323). sit

sit back (intr) = relax, take no action, do no more work;

I have worked hard all my life and now I'm going to sit back and watch other people working.

sit up (intr) == stay out of bed till later than usual (usually reading, working, or waiting for someone):

I was very worried when he didn't come in and ! sat up till 3 a.m. waiting for him.

She sat up all night with the sick child. stand

stand by someone (tr) = continue to support and help him: No matter what happens I'll stand by you, so don't be afraid.

stand for (tr) = represent:

The symbol 'x' usually stands/or the unknown quantity in mathematics.

stand for Parliament = be a candidate for Parliament, offer yourself for election:

Mr Pitt stood for Parliament five years ago but he wasn't elected. stand up for (tr) = defend verbally:

His father blamed him, but his mother stood up for him and said that he had acted sensibly.

Why don't you stand up for yourself? stand up to (tr) = resist, defend oneself against (a person or force):

This type of building stands up to the gales very well.

Your boss is a bully. If you don't stand up to him he'll lead you a dog's life. stand out (intr) = be conspicuous, be easily seen:

She stood out from the crowd because of her height and her/laming red hair.

stay

stay up (intr) = remain out of bed till later than usual, usually for pleasure: Children never want to go to bed at the proper time; they always want

to stay up late. step

step up (tr) = increase rate of, increase speed of (this usually refers to industrial production): This new machine will step up production, (step it up)

take

be taken aback (intr) = be surprised and disconcerted:

/ was taken aback when I saw the bill. take after (tr) = resemble (one's parents/grandparents etc.):

He takes after his grandmother; she had red hair too.

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My father was forgetful and I take after him; I forget everything. take back (tr) = withdraw (remarks, accusations etc.):

/ blamed him bitterly at first but later, when I heard the whole story, I realized that he had been right and I went to him and took back my

remarks, (took them back) take down (tr) = write, usually from dictation: He read out the names and his secretary took them down. (took

down the names/took the names down) take for (tr) = attribute wrong identity or qualities to someone:

I look him for his brother. They are extremely alike. Do you take me for a fool? take in (tr) (a) = deceive:

At first he took us in by his stories and we tried to help him; but later we learnt that his stories were all lies.

(b) = receive as guests/lodgers:

When our car broke down I knocked on the door of the nearest house. The owner very kindly took us in and gave us a bed/or the night.

People who live by the sea often take in paying guests during the summer, (take paying guests in/take them in)

(c) = understand, receive into the mind:

/ was thinking a/something else while she was speaking and I didn 'I really take in what she was saying-

I couldn't lake in the lecture stall. It was too difficult for me. (couldn 't take it in)

(d) = make less wide (of clothes):

I'm getting much thinner; I'll have to lake in my clothes, (fake my clothes in/take them in)

take off (tr) = remove (when used of clothing 'take off' is the opposite of 'put on'): He look off his coat when he entered the house and put it on again

when he went out. (look his coat off/took it off) take off (intr) = leave the ground (of aeroplanes):

There is often a spectators' balcony at airports, where people can watch the planes taking of/and landing. take on (tr)

(a) = undertake work:

She wants someone to look after her children. I shouldn 't care to take onthejob. They are very spoilt, (take the job on/fake it on)

(b) = engage staff:

They're taking on fifty new workers at the factory.

(c) = accept as an opponent:

/'/; take you on at table tennis. (I'll play against you.)

/ took on Mr Pitt at draughts, (took Mr Pitt on/took him on) take out (tr) = remove, extract: Petrol will take out that stain, (take the stain out/take it out)

The dentist took out two of her teeth. take somebody out = entertain them (usually at some public place):

Her small boy is at boarding school quite near here. I take him out

every month, (and give him a meal in a restaurant) take over (tr or intr) = assume responsibility for, or control of. in succession to somebody else:

We stop work at ten o 'clock and the night shift takes over until the following morning.

Miss Smith is leaving to get married and Miss Jones will be taking over the class/Miss Jones will be taking over from Miss Smith, (see hand over) take to (tr)

(a) •= begin a habit. There is usually the impression that the speaker thinks this habit bad or foolish, though this is not necessarily always the case. It is often used with the gerund:

He took to drink, (began drinking too much) He took to borrowing money from the petty cash.

(b) = find likeable or agreeable, particularly at first meeting:

/ was introduced to the new headmistress yesterday. I can't say I took to her.

He went to sea (= became a sailor) and took to the life like a duck to water.

(c) = seek refuge/safety in:

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When they saw that the ship was sinking the crew took to the boats. After the failure of the coup many of the rebels took to the hills and became guerillas.

take up (tr)

(a)= begin a hobby, sport or kind of study (there is no feeling of criticism here): He took up golf and became very keen on it. (took it up)

(b)= occupy (a position in time or space):

He has a very smalt room and most of the space is taken up by a grand piano.

A lota/an MP's time is taken up with answering letters from his constituents.

talk

talk over (tr) = discuss:

Talk it over with your wife and give me your answer tomorrow, (talk over my suggestion/talk my suggestion over)

think ^

think over (tr) = consider:

/ can't decide straight away but I 'II think over your idea and let you know what I decide, (think your idea over/think it over)

throw

throw away/out (tr) = jettison (rubbish etc.):

Throw away those old shoes. Nobody could wear them now. (throw the shoes away/throw them away) throw up (tr) = abandon suddenly (some work or plan):

He suddenly got tired of the job and threw it up. (he threw up the job/threw the job up) tie

tie someone up = bind his hands and feet so that he cannot move:

The thieves tied up the night watchman before opening the safe. (tied the man up/tied him up)

try

try on (tr) == put on (an article of clothing) to see if it fits:

CUSTOMER IN DRESS SHOP: / like this dress. Could I try it on? (try this dress on/try on this dress)

try out (tr) = test:

We won't know how the plan works till we have tried it out. They are trying out new ways of preventing noise in hospitals, (trying them out)

turn

turn away (tr) = refuse admittance to:

The man at the door turned away anybody who hadn't an

invitation card. (turned them away) turn down (tr) = refuse, reject an offer, application, applicant:

/applied/or the job but they turned me down/turned down my application because I dian 't know German.

He was offered £500 for the picture but he turned it down. (turned down the offer/turned the offer down) turn into (tr) = convert into:

/am going to turn my garage into a playroom for the children.

She turned the silver candlestick into a reading lamp. turn in (intr) = go to bed (used chiefly by sailors/campers etc.):

The captain turned in, not realizing that the icebergs were so close. turn on (tr) (stress on turn) = attack suddenly (the attacker is normally a friend or a hitherto friendly animal):

The tigress turned on the trainer and struck him to the ground. turn on/off (tr) = switch on/off (lights, gas. fires, radios, taps etc.) turn up/down (tr) = increase/decrease the pressure, force, volume (of gas or oil, lights, fires, or of radios):

Turn up the gas; it is much too low.

I wish the people in the next flat would turn down their radio. You can hear every word. (turn the sound down/turn it down) turn out (tr)

(a) = produce:

The creamery turns out two hundred tons of butter a week. (turns it out)

(b) = evict, empty:

1 turn a person out == evict him from his house/flat/room:

At one time, if tenants didn't Ray their rent the landlord could turn them out.

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2 turn out one's pockets/handbags/drawers etc. = empty them, usually looking for something: 'Turn out your Rockets,' said the detective.

3 turn out a room = (usually) clean it thoroughly, first putting the furniture outside: I try to turn out one room every month if I have time. turn out (intr)

(a)= assemble, come out into the street (usually in order to welcome somebody): The whole town turned out to welcome the winning football team

when they came back with the Cup.

(b)= develop:

I've never made Yorkshire pudding before so I am not quite sure how it is going to turn out. Marriages arranged by marriage bureaux frequently turn out well.

(c) = be revealed. Notice the two possible constructions, i( turned out that. . . and he turned out to be . . .:

He told her that he was a bachelor but it turned out that he was married with six children. (She learnt this later.) Our car broke down half way through the journey but the hiker we had picked up turned out to be an expert mechanic and was able to put things right.

Note the difference between turn out and come out. With turn out the fact revealed is always mentioned and there is no implication that

the facts are discreditable. With come out we are told only that certain facts (usually discreditable) are revealed; we are not told what these facts are.

turn over (tr) s= turn something so that the side previously underneath is exposed:

He turned over the stone, (turned the stone over/fumed it over The initials 'PTO' at the bottom of a page mean 'Please turn over'. 'Turn over a new leaf.' (begin again, meaning to do better) turn over (intr)

(a) = turn upside down, upset, capsize (used of vehicles or boats):

The car struck the wall and fumed over. The canoe turned over. throwing the boys info the water.

(b) = (of people) change position so as to lie on the other side: It is difficult to turn over in a hammock.

When his alarm went off he just turned over and went to sleep again. turn up (intr) = arrive, appear (usually from the point of view of someone waiting or searching):

We arranged to meet at the station but she didn 't turn up. Don't bother to look for my umbrella; it will turn up some day. walk

walk out (intr) = march out in disgust or indignation:

Some people were so disgusted with the play that they walked out in the middle of the first act.

wait

wait on (tr) = attend, serve fat home or in a restaurant): He expected his wife to wait on him hand and foot.

The man who was waiting on us seemed very inexperienced, he got all our orders mixed up.

wash

wash up (tr or intr) = wash the plates etc. after a meal:

When we have dinner very late we don't wash up till the next morning, (wash up the dishes/wash them up)

watch

watch out (intr) = look out. watch out for (tr) = look out for (see page 357). wear

wear away (intr) = gradually reduce; make smooth or flat: hollow out (used mostly of wood or stone. The subject is usually the weather, or people who walk on or touch the stone etc.):

It is almost impossible to read the inscription on the monument as

most of the Setters have been worn away. (by the weather) wear off (intr) = disappear gradually (can be used literally but is chiefly used for mental or physical feelings): These glasses may seem uncomfortable at first but that feeling will

soon wear off.

When her first feeling ofShyness had worn off she started to enjoy

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herself.

He began to try to sit up, which showed us that the effects of the drug were wearing off. wear out (tr or intr)

(a)(tr) = use till no longer serviceable; (intr) become unserviceable as a result of long use (chiefly of clothes):

Children wear out their shoes very quickly, (wear their shoes out/wear them out)

Cheap clothes wear out quickly.

(b)(tr) = exhaust (used of people; very often in the passive):

He worked all night and wanted to go on working the next day, but we saw that he was completely worn out and persuaded him to stop.

wind

wind up (tr or intr) = bring or come to an end (used of speeches or business proceedings): The headmaster wound up (the meeting) by thanking the parents.

(wound the meeting up/wound it up) wipe

wipe out (tr) = destroy completely;

The epidemic wiped out whole families, (wiped whole families out/wiped them out) work

work out (tr) = find. by calculation or study, the solution to some problem or a method of dealing with it; study and decide on the details of a scheme:

He used his calculator to work out the cost. (work the cost out) Tell me where you want to go and I'll work out a route. This is the outline of the plan. We want the committee to work out the details, (work them out)

39 List of irregular verbs

364Irregular verbs

The verbs in roman type are verbs which are not very common in modem English but may be found in literature. When a verb has two possible forms and one is less usual than the other, the less usual one will be printed in roman.

Compounds of irregular verbs form their past tenses and past participles in the same way as the original verb:

come

came

come overcome overcame

overcome

set

set

set upset

upset

upset

Present and infinitive Simple past

Past participle

abide

abode

abode arise

arose

arisen awake

awoke/awaked

awoken/awaked,

be

was

been bear

bore

borne/born* heat

heat

beaten become

became

become befall

befell

befallen beget

begot

begotten begin

began

begun

behold

beheld

beheld bend

bent

bent bereave

bereaved

bereaved/bereft* beseech

besought

besought bet

betted/bet

betted/bet bid (= command}

bade

bidden bid (= offer)

bid

bid bind

bound

bound bite

bit

bitten

*These past participles are not optional but carry different meanings and should be checked by the student in a reliable dictionary.

Present and infinitive Simple past Past participle

bleed

bled

bled

blow

Mew

blown

break

broke

broken

breed

bred

bred

bring

brought

brought

broadcast

broadcast

broadcast

build

built

built

burn

burned/burnt

burned/burnt

burst

burst

burst

buy

bought

bought

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309

can~[

could

be able

cast

cast

cast

catch

caught

caught

chide

chid

chidden

choose

chose

chosen

cleave

clove/cleft

cloven/cleft*

cling

clung

clung

clothe

clothed/clad

clothed/clad

come

came

come

cost

cost

cost

creep

crept

crept

crow

crowed/crew

crowed

cut

cut

cut

dare

dared/dwst

dared/durst

deal/di-.V dealt /delt/

dealt /delt/

dig

dug

dug

do

did

done

draw

drew

drawn

dream

dreamed/dreamt dreamed/dreamt

/dri:m/

/dri:md, dremt/ /dri:md, dremt/

drink

drank

drunk

drive

drove

driven

dwelt

dwelled/dit^

^viewed/dwelt

eat

ate

eaten

fall

felt

fallen

feed

fed

fed

feel

felt

felt

fight

fought

fought

find

found

found

flee

fled

fled

*See footnote on page 353. +Present only.

Present and infinitive Simple past

past participle

fling

flung

flung

fly

flew

flown

forbear

forbore

forborne

forbid

forbade /fa'basd/ forbidden

forget

forgot

forgotten

forgive

forgave

forgiven

forsake

forsook

forsaken

freeze

froze

frozen

get

got

got

gild

gilded/gilt

gilded/gilt

gird

girded/girt

girded/girt

give

gave

given

go

went

gone

grind

ground

ground

grow

grew

grown

hang

hanged/hung

hanged/hung*

have

had

had

hear /hi3(r)/ heard /hard/

heard /ha:d/

hew

hewed

hewed/hewn

hide

hid

hidden

hit

hit

hit

hold

held

held

hurt

hurt

hurt

keep

kept

kept

kneel

knelt

knelt

knit*'

knit

knit

know

knew

known

lay

laid

laid

lead

led

led

A Practical English Grammar

310

lean

leaned/leant

leaned/leant

/H:n/

/li:nd, lent/

/li:nd, lent/

leap

leaped/leapt

leaped/leapt

/li:p/

/li:pt, lept/

/li:pt, lept/

leam

learned/leamt

learned/leamt

leave

left

left

lend

lent

lent

let

let

let

lie

lay

lain

'See footnote on page 353.

** = unite/draw together, knit (= make garments from wool) is a regular verb.

fPresent only.

Present and infinitive Simple past

Past participle

light

lighted/lit

lighted/lit

lose

lost

lost

make

made

made

may\

might

mean /mi:n/ meant /ment/ meant /ment/

meet

met

met

mow

mowed

mowed/mown

must\

had to

fiught\

pay

paid

paid

put

put

put

read /ri:d/ read /red/

read /red/

rend

rent

rent

rid

rid

rid

ride

rode

ridden

ring

rang

rung

rise

rose

risen /'nzn/

run

ran

run

saw

sawed

sawed/sawn

say /sei/

said /sed/

said /sed/

see

saw

seen

seek

sought

sought

sell

sold

sold

send

sent

sent

set

set

set

sew

sewed

sewed/sewn

shake

shook

shaken

sliall'{

should

shear

sheared/shore

sheared/shorn

shed

shed

shed

shine /Jain/ shone /Jun/

shone /Inn/

shoe

shoed/shod

shwd/shod

shoot

shot

shot

show

showed

showed/shown

shrink

shrank

shrunk

shut

shut

shut

sing

sang

sung

sink

sank

sunk

sit

sat

sat

slay

slew

slain

sleep

slept

slept

fPresent on!y.

Present and infinitive Simple past

Past participle

slide

slid

slid

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sling

slung

slung

slink

slunk

slunk

slit

slit

slit

smell

smelled/smelt

smelted/smelt

smite

smote

smitten

sow

sowed

sowed/sown

speak

spoke

spoken

speed

speeded/sped

speeded/sped

spell

spelled/spelt

spelled/spelt

spend

spent

spent

spill

spilled/spilt

spilled/spilt

spin

spun

spun

spit

spat

spat

split

split

split

spread

spread

spread

spring

sprang

sprung

stand

stood

stood

steal

stole

stolen

stick

stuck

stuck

sting

stung

stung

stink

stank/stunk

stunk

strew

strewed

strewed/strewn

stride

strode

stridden

strike

struck

struck

siring

strung

strung

strive

strove

striven

swear

sicore

sworn

sweep

swept

swept

swell

swelled

swelled/swollen

swim

swam

swum

swing

swung

swung

take

took

taken

teach

taught

taught

tear

tore

torn

tell

told

told

think

thought

thought

thrive

thrived/throve

thrived/thriven

throw

threw

thrown

thrust

thrust

thrust

tread

trod

trodden/trod

Present and infinitive Simple past Past participle

understand

understood

understood

undertake

undertook

undertaken

wake

waked/woke

waked/woken

wear

more

worn

weave

wove

woven

weep

wept

wept

wet

wetted/wet

wetted/wet

wiil't

would

win

won

won

wind

wound

wound

wring

wrung

wrung

write

wrote

written

fPresent only.

A Practical English Grammar

312

Index

a/an (the indefinite article) 1-4

+ ones/ones 24 A

form 1

order 19

with abstract nouns 13 D-E, participle 17 B

240 C, 345

position 18

omission 3

possessive: see possessive

and one 2 E, 4, 349 B, 350

adjectives

use 2

predicative 18 B-D

ability 136-8

+ prepositions 96

see also can/could for ability

used as pronouns 23, 24 B

about 99

of quality 19

anxious about 27 C, 96

quantitative: see all (of), any, both

be about + infinitive 114 C

(of), enough, few/a few, little/a

sorry about 27 B, 96

little, many/much etc., no, one,

tell about 316 B

some

what/how about... ? 289 B

+ that-clauses 26-7

above 95 A, 99

after the 23

abstract nouns 10 A, 13

admit: + gerund 261, 315 B

it + be + noun + infinitive 240 C + that 346 A

it + be + noun + that-clause adverb clauses 336-42

343 C

see also clauses

+ that-clauses 345

adverbs 28-45

omission of the 7 A, 7 C

formed from adjective + ly 29

absurd: + infinitive 26 B

and adjectives with same form

+ that-clause 236 B

30 A

accuse + object + of 97, 315 B

comparative and superlative 31

across 99

comparisons 22 C, 34. 341

actually 40 A

comparisons with like/as 21 H-I

additions to remarks 112

of degree 41

adjectives 17-27

of frequency 38

agreement 17 C

interrogative 60

attributive 18 A, 18 D-E

followed by inversion 36, 45

comparative and superlative 20 kinds 28

comparisons 21-2, 341

of manner 35

demonstrative 9

order 39

distributive 46, 49 A

of place 36

+ infinitives 26-7

position 35-41, 45, 327

interrogative 54-9

relative 75 E

it + be + adjective + infinitive

sentence 40

26B-E.27D-E

of time 37

kinds 17

adverbs/conjunctions (conjuncts)

to invitations 286 C

337

short answers with auxiliaries 108

advice: expressions of 287-8

anxious 27 C, 235

in indirect speech 320, 321 B

any 50 A, 50 C

advise: +• gerund/infinitive 267 D

anybody 51, 52 A-B

+ object + infinitive 244 A,

anyone 51, 52 A-B

287 C-D, 320 A

anything 51 A, 51 C, 52 A

+ that 235

anyway 327 A

afraid: + infinitive 27 B, 271 A

anywhere 36 B, 52 A

+ of 27 B, 271 A

apologize for 97, 315 B

+ so/not 347 B

apostrophe in contractions

+ that 27 B, 271 A

see contractions of auxiliary verbs

after: conjunction 92 B, 342

apostrophe for possessive/genitive;

preposition 92 B

with nouns 14, 15 A

afterwards 37 A, 92 B

with in definite'pronoun one 62,

agent of passive verbs 302 A,

68 A

303 D. 305 A

with someone/anyone etc. 51 B

ago: examples of use 183,188

with someone etc. else 52 B

agree

not used with yours, hers, its etc.

not used in continuous 168 C

62

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+infinitive 241 A, 269 A, 315 A appear: + adjective 18 B, 340 A-B

+that (... should) 241 E-F. 235, used/not used in continuous 168 F

346 A

+ continuous infinitive 254 B

+ to + possessive adjective +

+ infinitive 240 A-B, 241 A,

gerund 269 A

241 D

alike 21 G

it appears + that 346 A, 346 C

all (of) 46 A. 46 C. 48 A-C + perfect infinitive 255 C, 256 B

compared to every 46 A

aren't I? (= am I not?) 113

allow: + infinitive/gerund 267 D

arrange

and may (permission) 127, 130, + (for + object +) continuous

131 D

infinitive 254 B3

almost 41 C

+ (for + object +) present

along 93 F, 99

infinitive 241 A

although; see though/although

+ that 235, 241 F

always: position 38 A-B

arrive at/in 93 B

with present continuous 167 B

articles 1-8

with present perfect 185 D definite, see the

with simple present 173

indefinitive, see a/an

among 95 F

as

an: see a/an

adjective + as + subject + be

and 326

333 A, 340

with adjectives 18 E

as... as. not as/so... as 21 A,

both ... and 326

22, 34 A, 341 A-C

come/go + and 335

meaning because/since 332,

in pairs of infinitives 246 I

338 A-B

another: one another 53 C and like 21 H-I

one . . . another 53 B

+ pronoun + auxiliary 22,

answers

341 A-B

to requests with can/may 131 C so + adjective + as + infinitive

to questions with must/need 151252 C

so as + infinitive 334 B bare infinitive 238 B 244 A 246

and when/while 331 B, 332

barely 41 C, 44, HOB

as if/though 292

be (auxiliary verb) 113-14

ask

form 107 A, 113

+(indirect object+) for 283 A

in continuous forms 113 B, 302 C

+ how/wh- + infinitive 242 A,

+ infinitive in indirect speech

242 C

321,229 B

+ if/whether + clause 317 E,

+ infinitive for orders plans

318 B

114 A

+ (object +) infinitive 243 B,

in passive tenses 302-3

283 B. 320

in short answers, question tags

= invite 286 B

etc, 108-12

+ passive infinitive 320 C subjunctive 290

+ that 243 B

was/were + infinitive for destiny

assume: + infinitive 245 A-B, 306 114 B

+ that 346

was/were + perfect infinitive

assumption 160

114 A2

at

were with singular subject 225,

after adjectives 96

228 B, 290 B, 292

arrive at a destination 93 B

be (ordinary verb) 115-17

be at a place 94 A

form 113 A

in directions 93 F

for age, condition, size, weight,

shout at 89 B

prices 115 B-E

for time 90 A

in continuous forms 115 B

for time/place 90 E

to denote existence 115 A

attempt (noun) 251

there is/are 116 A

attempt (verb) 241

there is/it is 117

auxiliary verbs 106-12

be able for ability

form 106-7

form 136

in additions to remarks 112

can/be able, could/was able 137

in agreements/disagreements 109

be about + infinitive 114 C, 241 B

in comment tags 111

be determined: + infinitive 241 A

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in comparisons 22

+ that 235

modals 106, 107 B

be for/against + gerund 259

in question tags 110

be going to; for intention 203-5

semi-modals 106, 107 C

for prediction 206

in short answers 108

be on the point of 114 C

see also be, can/could etc., dare, because

do, have, may, must etc., need.

and as/since 332 B-D, 338

ought, shall, used. will and

and for 330

contractions of auxiliary verbs

become 18 B

avoid + gerund 261

before: adverb/preposition 90 B, 99

replacing negative purpose clause conjunction 90 B, 195 B, 342 A-B

336 C

beg

away 36 A, 36 E, 39

+ (object +) infinitive 243 A-B,

320 A, 320 C

back 30 A, 39

+ passive infinitive 320 C

bad 18 D, 20 E

+ that 235, 346

bad at/for 96

begin + infinitive/gerund 267 A

badly 35 F, 39

behind 95 D, 99

believe

and may 129

(active) + object + infinitive 245

requests for permission 131, 283

(passive) + infinitive 245, 254-6, can/could for possibility 135

306

could instead of may/might 134

so/not 347 A

can't/couldn't for negative

+ that 240 F, 245 A, 258, 346 A deduction 159

+ what + subject + verb 346 E

can't/couldn't bear +

below 95 B, 99

gerund/infinitive 267 B

beneath 95 C

can't/couldn't help + gerund 261

beside 95 D-E

can't/couldn't stand + gerund 261

besides 95 E, 99, 327 A

cardinal numbers 348-9

best

care (about) (= feel concerned)

adjective 20 E, 21 B-C, 24 B,

294 D

26 C

care for (= look after) 294 D

adverb 31, 34 C

care (for) and like 294, 295 A-C

better (adjective) 20 E, 21 C-D,

catch 274 A

26 C

cease + gerund/infinitive 267 A

better (adverb) 31, 34 B

certain 27 A

had better 120

certainly 40 A

between 95 D. 95 F

claim 241 A, 306 A

both (of) 47, 48 A-C

clauses: comparison 341

both ... and 326

concession 329, 340

bound + infinitive 27 A

condition 221-9

busy + present participle 275 C

noun 343-7

but (conjunction) 98 B, 326purpose 336-7

but (preposition)

reason 330, 338 A

+ bare infinitive 98 B

relative 72-85

but for in conditional sentences

result/cause 338 B, 339

226 D

result (with so/such , ,. that) 339

and except 95 H

time 331, 342

wh- + should... but... ? 237 B

cleft sentences 67 D, 76, 117 D

by (adverb) 99

come: + infinitives of purpose 335

by (preposition) 99

+ participles 275 A

with agent of passive verb 302 A,

command (verb)

303 D, 305 A

+ object + infinitive 244 A

by air/sea etc. 93 D

+ that... should 235

by myself etc. 70 C, 71

commands: direct 281-2

+ time expression 90 B, 216

indirect 320-1

+ vehicle 93 D

commas

with connective relative clauses

can/could for ability 136-8

82

form 136

not used with defining relative

can/be able, could/was able 137clauses 72, 84

in conditional sentences 221 Bl, with non-defining relative clauses

A Practical English Grammar

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222 C, 223 Bl

70 A 84

could + perfect infinitive 138,154not used after say, tell etc. in

in purpose clauses 336 A

indirect speech 307

can/could for permission 128-31 comment tags 111

form 128

comparative forms

could/was allowed to 130

adjectives 20

adverbs 31

conditional sentences 221-9

the + comparative adjective/

in indirect speech 229

pronoun 24 B

type 1 221

see also comparison constructions

type 2 222

comparison constructions type 3 223

alike and like 21 G

types 2 and 3 combined 223 B4

as and like 21 H-I

conditional tenses 219-20

as... as, not so/as... as 21 A

perfect 220

as/than + gerund/infinitive present 219

341 C-D

congratulations 323 A3

as/than + pronoun (+ auxiliary)

conjunctions 326-33

22

adverbs/conjunctions (conjuncts)

comparative + than 21 B, 34 B

327

the + comparative ... the + co-ordinating 326

comparative 21 D, 34 B

subordinating 328

the + comparative/superlative

conjuncts 327

(pronouns) 24 B

connective relative clauses 82

the + superlative + in/of 21 C

consider

the + superlative + that... ever

+ object + infinitive 24S A

21 C

(passive) + infinitive/perfect

see also rather

infinitive 245 B, 306 A

complain 307, 316 C, 346 A

+ that 240 F, 245 A, 258, 346

compound nouns 12 M, 14 E, 16

consonants 354

conditional clauses

continue + gerund/infinitive 267 A

but for meaning if it were not for contractions of auxiliary verbs

226 D

102 B, 103 B, 104 B, 105 A-B

even if 226 A

aren't 1113

if meaning as/since 221 Bl,

can't 128

222 Cl

shan't 207

if and in case 227

won't 207

with if omitted 223 B5, 225 B

see also he'd, he's, it's, it's and its

if + should 224 E

coolly 29 C

if + were + infinitive 222 B2,

co-ordinating conjunctions 326

225 A

copulas (link verbs) 18 B-C, 169

if + will for obstinate insistence

countable nouns 2, 13 C-E

224 C

if + will/would for requests dare (auxiliary verb) 107 C, 161

224 A, 284 F, 284 H

I daresay 161 C

if + won't 224 B

dare (ordinary verb) 161 E

if •+• would like/care 224 D

dates 352

if I were you for advice 225 A2,

day: one day 4 A2

287 C

days of the week 352 A

if only 228

deal, a great/good 25 B

inversion of subject and auxiliary,

decide: + infinitive 241 A, 241 F

otherwise/or 226 E

+ how/wh- + infinitive 242

provided (that) 226 G

+ that... (should) 235, 241 E,

suppose/supposing meaning what

346 A-B, 346 E

if 226 H

decision + infinitive 251

whether... or 226 B

deduction 156-9

deep (adjective/adverb) 30 A

deeply 30 B

elder/eldest 20 H, 24 B

defining relative clauses 72-7. 84 else('B> after someone etc. 52

see also relative clauses

emphasizing pronouns 71

definite article: see the

enable + object + infinitive

delighted + infinitive 26 F

244 A-B

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demand 235. 346 A, 346 D

encourage + object + infinitive

demonstrative adjectives/

244 A-B, 320 A, 320 C-D

pronouns 9

enjoy + gerund 261 A, 261 C,

deny: + gerund 261, 264

295 B, 295 E

in indirect speech 316 C

enough 30 A

+ that 346 A-B

adjective/adverb + enough +

despite 329 C-D

infinitive 252 B

determine/be determined

adverb of degree 41 A, 41 C

+ infinitive 241 A, 241 G

essential

+ that 235, 346

+ (for + object +) infinitive 26 C

determiners: a/an 1-4

+ that 236 A

either/neither 49

estimate: in active, + that 245 A

my/your/his/her etc. 62-3

in passive, + infinitive or that

the 6-8

245 B, 306 A

this/that/these/those 9

even if/though 226 A, 340

direct (adjective/adverb) 30 A

eventually 37 A

direct and indirect speech 307

ever: with affirmative verb 38 D

see aiso indirect speech

with present perfect 185 D

direct object: see object

with superlatives 21 C, 185 D

directly 30 B

after who, what, where etc. 61

dislike

every 46 A-B

not used in continuous 168 B every day etc. with simple present + gerund 261 A, 262 tense 173 B

distributive adjectives/pronouns everybody 46 C, 52 A, 110 C

each 46 B, 48 D

everyone 46 C, 52 A, 69, 110 C

either/neither 49

everything 46 C, 52 A

every 46 B

everywhere 36 A, 52 A

do: form 124

or wherever 85 B

auxiliary verb 125

evidently 40 A

ordinary verb 126

except; + bare infinitive 98 B

down 36 E-F, 39, 99

and but 95 H

dread: + gerund 261, 262 B

exclamations in indirect speech

dread to think 261

323 A

due 27 A

excuse 261 A, 262 C

due to 27 A

expect

during 91 B

used/not used in continuous

168 C, 171 C

each 46 B

+ (object +) infinitive 243 A,

each of 48 D

243 C, 255 C3

each other 53 C, 70 B

should/would have expected 231 C

early 18 D, 30 A

+ so/not 347 A

either (adjective/pronoun) 49 A, 69 + that 346 A

either (conjunction)

experience 13 A-C

in additions to remarks 112 D

explain 89 B, 307, 316 C

either ... or 49 B, 326

failure + infinitive 251

+ period of time 91 A3, 187 A

fair

after verbs 97

with negative/interrogative verb

what ever for? 61

+ infinitive 26 B

what. . . for? 58 B

only fair + infinitive 26 C

forbid 244 A-B, 320 A-B

only fair that 236 A

foreign plurals 12 B, 12 L

fairly 41 A

forget 268

and rather 42 A-C

+ how/wh- + infinitive 242 A,

fancy (= imagine) 261, 262 B

242 C

far: adjective 20 E-G

+ how/wh- + subject + verb

adverb 32, 41 B

268 C, 346 E

farther/farthest: see far

+ infinitive 241 A, 241 D-E

fast (adjective/adverb) 30 A

+ that 241 E, 268 C, 346 A

feel: + adjective 18 B

forgive 262 C

used/not used in continuous tenses fortunate + infinitive/that 27 D

168 A. 168 C, 169 A

fortunately 40 B

feel like 97

forward 39

A Practical English Grammar

317

+ object + bare infinitive 244 A,

frankly 40 B

245 A, 246 C, 273

frequency adverbs 38

+ object + present participle 273 friendly (adjective, not adverb)

passive forms + infinitive 306 A

29 B

+ that-clause 346

from 91 A, 93 A

feminine forms of nouns 11 B-C funny f = strange) + infinitive/that

few/a few 5 A-C

26 B

find

further/furthest: see far

(only) to find as connective link

future continuous tense 211-15

249

form 211

+ object + present participle

as ordinary continuous 212

274 A

for future without intention 213

passive forms + infinitive 255 C, compared to will + infinitive 214

306 A

future forms 198-216

+ (that) + gerund + (be) +

be going to form 203

adjective 258

be going to for intention 204-5

+ that +• subject + verb 346

be going to for prediction 206

+ (that) it (be) + adjective +

examples of various forms 215

infinitive 67 D, 240 F

future continuous 211-15

fine (and) + adjective 19 C future perfect 216 A

first 350-1

future perfect continuous 216 B

at first 90 E

future simple (will/shall) 207-10

the first + infinitive 77 A present continuous 202, 215

foolishly 35 E

simple present 199

for (conjunction) 330

not used in time clauses 342 B

for (preposition)

will + infinitive tor intention 201,

after adjectives/participles 96

205

ask for 283 A

future for intention

care for 294, 295 B-C

be going to for premeditated

and during 91 B

intention 204-5

+ gerund 334 D

be going to and will 205

omission before indirect objects note on meaning 200

88

questions about intentions 215 B

shall for determination 208 B,

verbs + gerund or infinitive

234 A

266-71

will for unpremeditated intention get

201, 205. 214

replacing be in passive 303 B

will and want 210 A

(= become) + adjective 18 B

won't for negative intention 209 F

get/have + object + past

future perfect, simple and

participle 119

continuous 216

have got (obligation) 144 B-C,

future simple 207-9

149-51

form 207

have got (possession) 122

for announcements of plans 209 E

+ in/into, on/onto, ofi, out/out of

for assumptions about future

93 D-F

209 A

+ in/to (= arrive at/in) 93 B

used in conditional sentences, but

give up + noun/gerund 259 B

not in if-clauses 221 A

go: + infinitives of purpose 335

in purpose clauses 336

+ participles 275 A

used with, but not in time clauses

go on + gerund/infinitive 270 A

342 B

going to, be 203-6

with verbs not used in continuous

good

209 D

attributive/predicative 18 D

will/shall 208

comparative and superlative 20 E

see also shall and will

good at + noun/gerund 96

future tenses: see future forms

good for + object + infinitive

26 E

gender

good of + object + infinitive 26 B

agreement of adjectives 17 C

+ infinitive 26 C, 26 E

nouns 11

great deal (of)/great many 25 B,

personal pronouns 65

33 B

possessive adjectives 63 A

grow (= become) + adjective 18 B

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318

possessive pronouns 64 guarantee: + infinitive 241 A reflexive/emphasizing pronouns + that 346

70-71

generous + of + object + infinitive

habit expressed by:

26 B

simple past 177 C

generously 35 E

simple present 173

gerund 257-65

used 162 B

form and use 257

will/would 230

after mind 263

had better 120, 287 B. 310 B

after no in short prohibitions 258hair 13 A, 13 C

with nouns to form compound

happen

nouns 16

+ continuous infinitive 241 G,

passive 265

254 B

perfect 264

+ infinitive 241 A

after phrasal verbs 259 B

it happens/happened that 346 C

after possessive adjective/pronoun

+ perfect infinitive 255 C

object 262

+ that 241 D

after prepositions 98, 259 A, 271

hard 26 D, 30 A

as subject of sentence 258

hardly 44, 110 B

after to (preposition) 260 B

and barely/scarcely 44

after verbs and expressions 261 hardly any/at all 44

hardly ever 38 A, 38 C, 44-5.

his 62-3

HOB

home 8 A, 39, 93 C

hardly . . . when 45, 342 E honestly 40 B

hate

hope

not used in continuous 168 B

+ continuous infinitive 254 B3

+ gerund 295 C

hoping replacing who 77 B3

would hate + (object +) infinitive + infinitive 241 A

243 A, 295 A

+ infinitive represented by to 247

have (auxiliary verb) 118-21

+ perfect infinitive 255 C3

form 118 A

+ that 346 A

had better + bare infinitive

120, hospital, with/without the 8 B

287 B, 310 B

hotly 29 C

have to be for deduction 158

how: in exclamations 323 Al

+ object + bare infinitive 119 A

+ infinitive 242 A, 242 C, 244 C

+ object + past participle 119

introducing noun clause 346 E

+ object + present participle 121 how (interrogative)

used to form perfect tenses 118 B

+ adjective/adverb 60 D

have to: see obligation

how are you? 60 D3

have (ordinary verb) 122-3how do you do? 60 D3, 126

form 122 B

how much? 25 C, 33 B, 60 D

have difficulty in + gerund 98 for measurements 58 E, 115 C-E

have got 122 B, 122 D. 123 B

in suggestions 389 B

meaning 'possess' 122

however 85 C

meaning 'take', 'give' etc. 123

he 22 C, 65

I 22 B, 65

he'd = he had/he would 102 B,

if: ask if/whether 317 E

110 C

if you would 224 A, 284 F, 284 H

he's = he is/he has 102 B, 110 C

what if? 226 H

hear

wonder if 318 A

not used in continuous 168 A,

sec also conditional clauses

170 B

imagine: + gerund 261 A

•+• object + bare infinitive 244 A,

+ that 346 A

246 C, 273 B-C

imperative 281

+ object + present participle 273 indirect commands 320-2 (only) to hear as connective link implore: + object + infinitive 244

249

in indirect requests 320

in passive + full infinitive 273 D

important

+ that 346 A-B, 346 E

+ (for + object +) infinitive 26 C

help

+ that 236 A

+ full or bare infinitive 246 H

in (adverb) 94 B

+ (object +) infinitive 243 A

get in 93 B, 93 D-E

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her: possessive adjective 62-3

before adverbs of manner 39

object pronoun 22 C, 65-6 + verb + noun subject 36 E

here 36 C-D

in (preposition) 94 A-B

hers 62, 64 B

after adjectives/participles 96

herself 70-1

in adverb phrases 36 F

high 30 A

arrive in 93 B

highly 30 B

in (good) time 90 C

him 22 C. 65-6

in the beginning/end 90 E

himself 70-1

after verbs 97

in case: and if 227

exclamations 323 A

and lest 237 C2, 337 A

infinitive and gerund

in front of 95 D

constructions 315

in order: + clause of purpose 336 B

'might,' 'ought to,' 'should,'

in order/so as + infinitive

'would,' 'used to' 311

334 B-C

'must' and needn't' 325

in spite of 329 C

past tenses unchanged 309

indefinite article: see a/an

pronouns and possessive

indefinite pronouns 68

adjectives 313 A

indirect object: see object

say, tell and other introductory

indirect speech 307-25

verbs 316

direct to indirect speech 307

'I/we shall/should' 308 C

mixed types 324

tense changes necessary 308

present participle as connective 'this/these' 313 B

272 B5, 324 C

expressions of time and place 314

see also next six entries

unreal past tenses 310

indirect speech (advice) 320

'yes' and 'no' 323 B

advise + object + infinitive

indirect speech (suggestions)

287 A, 287 E, 320

289 D, 322 A, 322 B3

•had better' 120, 310 B

infinitive 238-56

'(if I were you) I should/would'

form 238

225 A2. 287 C

after adjectives 26-7

say/tell (+ that) + subject +

ask/beg + (object +) infinitive

should 321 Bl-2

243 B

indirect speech (commands) 320-2

bare infinitive 246

'let him/them' 322 B

after be 114

order/tell etc. + object +

after be about 114 C

infinitive 320

as a connective link 249

say/tell etc. + subject + be +continuous 254, 306 D

infinitive 321 A

and gerund constructions 266-71

indirect speech (questions) 317-19

in indirect commands/requests

affirmative verb used 317 A

320-1

ask with/without indirect object

introductory/final 253

317 C

with introductory it 240 B

ask/wonder etc. + how/wh317 D

after know/think etc. 245

ask if/whether 317 E

after nouns 250-1

'shall I/we?' 318

after only 249 A

'will/would/could you?' 319 passive 250 B2, 302 D-E

indirect speech (requests) 320 after passive verbs 245 B-E, 306

ask + (object +) infinitive 243 B

perfect continuous 256

'can/could/may/might I have?'

perfect infinitive with auxiliaries

283 A

and other verbs 255, 306

'can/could I see/speak to?' 283 -B

to express purpose 334-5

'could/would you?' 319, 320 D

replacing relative clause 250

requests with if-clauses 229 B

split infinitives 248

requests with 'shall I?' 318 B

as subject 240

indirect speech (statements)

after suppose/be supposed 306 B

308-16

represented by to 238 D, 247

conditional sentences 229, 308 C

without to (= bare infinitive) 246

'could' 312

after too/enough/so ... as 252

summary of uses 239

with so/neither/nor in additions to

after verb + how 244 C

remarks 112

A Practical English Grammar

320

after verb + how/wh242 inversion using interrogative form

after verb + object 244

of verb 45

after verb or verb + object 243

invitations 286, 296 B

after verbs and phrases 241

answers to invitations 286 C

after verbs of the senses 273 B-D

in indirect speech 286 B

verb + that or infinitive 241 D-F

invite + object + infinitive 244 A.

after verb + whether 242 B

286 B

after was/were 114 B

irregular comparisons

insist

adjectives 20 E

+ on + (possessive adjective or

adverbs 31 B

object pronoun +) gemnd 262 A irregular plurals of nouns 12

+ that 346 A

irregular verbs 364

intention: note on meaning 200

it (impersonal pronoun)

see also future for intention

representing clause/phrase 67 E

intelligent + (of + object +) in cleft sentences 67 Dl, 76

infinitive 26 B

in expressions of distance,

intend + gerund or (object +)

temperature, time etc. 67 C

infinitive 243 A, 267 C

for identity 117 C

interested in 96 A

subject of impersonal verbs

interesting + infinitive or that

(appear/happen/look/seem) 67 F

26 E

introductory it 67 D, 240 B

interrogative of verbs

it is + period of time + since 188

form and contractions 104 A-B

it is/there is 117

after certain adverbs 45 it is time + subject + unreal past

in comment tags 111

287 F, 293

not used in indirect questions 317

subject of occur/turn out 241 D.

in invitations 286

346 C

not used after certain phrases

it (personal pronoun) 62, 65 A, 66,

104 C3, 104 D, 283 C

67 A-B

in question tags 110

it'd = it had/it would 102 B, 110 C

in questions 56-61. 104 C it's = it is/it has 102 B, HOC

not used in questions without

it's and its 62

identity of subject 55, 303 D

it's no use/good + gerund 261 A,

in requests 104 D, 131, 283-4

261 C

in suggestions 289 A-B

its 62, 63 A

see also auxiliary verbs and tenses

itself 70, 71

interrogatives

adjectives/pronouns 54-9

just (adjective) = fair/right

adverbs 60

+ negative/interrogative verb +

into 93 D-F, 94 B

infinitive 26 B

intransitive verbs 362

only just + infinitive 26 C

inversion of subject and verb

only just + that 236 A

after certain adverbs/adverb

Just (adverb) 41 C, 41 E

phrases 36 C, 36 E-F

have/had + just + past participle

with had/should/were in

183, 194 B

conditional sentences 224 E, 225

if you would just 284 F

with say/reply etc. after direct

just about + infinitive 114 C

speech 316

justly = fairly/rightly 30 B

keep; + adjective 18 B

likely; no adverb form 29 B

meaning continue, not used in

+ infinitive or that 27 E

continuous 168 F

replacing may? 132 E

+ (on +) gerund 259 B, 261

link verbs (copulas) 18 B-C. 169

kind + of + object + infinitive

liquid measure 353 C

26 B

listen 168 A

kindly: adjective/adverb 29 B, 30 A little = small (adjective) 19 A-B

adverb 35 E

little/a little

know

adjectives/pronouns 5 A-C

not used in continuous tenses

adverbs 5 D, 41 C

168 C

little, less, least

+ how/wh- + infinitive 242 A

adjectives/pronouns 20 E

in passive + infinitive 245, 256,

adverbs 31 B

306 A, 306 D

long (adjective/adverb) 30 A, 30 C

A Practical English Grammar

321

+ that 346

long (verb)

knowledge 13 A, 13 D

+ for + noun/pronoun 97

+ infinitive 241 A

late: adjective 18 D

look 18 B-C

adjective/adverb 30 A

used/not used in continuous

adverb 37 B

168 A,169 B

lately 30 B, 37 A, 185 C

look forward to 259 B

learn

lots (oil/a lot (of| 25 B, 33 B

+ how/wh- + infinitive 242 A,

love (verb)

242 C

not used in continuous 168 B

+ infinitive 241 A, 241 E

+ gerund 295 C

(only) to learn as connective 249 B would love + (object +) infinitive

+ that 346 A

243 A

least: see little, less, least

would love + to 247

length, measures of 353 B lovely (adjective)

less: see little, less, least

+ (and +) adjective 19 C

lest 237 C, 337 B

+ infinitive 26 E

let: + bare infinitive 246 D

lucky + infinitive or that 27 D

in indirect speech 322

luckily 40 B

let him/her/it/them 281 C

let us for commands 281 Bmake: + object + adjective 18 B

let us for suggestions 289 A, 322

+ object + bare infinitive 244 A,

+ object + bare infinitive 244 A

246 E

light (adjective) 18 D

(passive) + full infinitive 246 E,

like (adjective/preposition) 306 C

in comparisons 21 G-I

manage + infinitive 241 A, 241 C

feel like 97

many/much, more, most

rather like 42 B

(adjectives/pronouns) 20 E

like (verb)

many and a lot of 25

and care (for) 294 A, 295 C

masculine forms of nouns 11 B-C

not used in continuous 168 B

mass nouns 13

+ gerund 262 B, 295 C

may/might + infinitive

+ infinitive 295 C-D

form 127, 132 A, 132 E

and prefer 297 A3, 298 A-B

in concession clauses 340

= think wise/right 295 D in conditional sentences 221 Bl,

see also would like

222 Cl

may/might as well

naturally 40 B

may/might I? requests 131, 283 near: adjective 20 G

may/might well 35 F

adverb 30 C

for permission 127, 129-31, 283 preposition 30 C2

for possibility 132-4. 157

nearly 30 B, 41

in purpose clauses 336 B

necessary

you might requests 285 A-B

+ (for + object +) infinitive

may/might + perfect infinitive

26 C

might in type 3 conditionals 223 B + that... (should) 236 A

might in reproaches 255 B6

need: see obligation

in speculations about past 133,

need (= require) 155

134 B

negative interrogative: form 105

me 22 B-C, 65

in question tags 110 A

me/my with gerund 262

in requests 105 B, 131 B

mean (= intend)

negatives of tenses 103

+ (object +) infinitive 243 A,

neglect + infinitive 241 A

269 B

neither (adjective/pronoun) 49 A,

mean (= involve)

69

+ gerund 261-2, 269 B

with question tag 110 B

measures 348-53

neither (conjunction)

might: see may/might

in additions to remarks 112 D

mind (= object) 283

neither ... nor 49 B, 326

not used in continuous 168 B

neither/nor + inversion 45

do you mind? requests 263 C

never: with comparatives 21 C

don't mind and don't care 294 D and ever 38 D + gerund 261 A, 262 B 263 with inversion 45

A Practical English Grammar

322

mine (possessive pronoun) 62, 64

position in sentence 38 A, 38 C

misrelated participles 280 with present perfect 185 D, 186

miss 4- gerund 2fil

nevertheless 327 F, 329 A

modal verbs 106, 107 B-C nice: + (and +) adjective 19 C

months 352 A

(= kind) + of + object +

more: see many etc,, much etc. infinitive 26 B

moreover 327 A

<= pleasant) + (for + object •+-)

most: see many etc., much etc. infinitive 26 E

mostly 30 B

no: adjective 50 B, 110 B

much, more, most (adverbs) 31, and yes in indirect speech 323 B

33, 41 C

no one 51, 52 A-B, 110 B

more, most in comparisons 20 A, nobody 51, 52 A-B, 110 B

31

non-defining relative clauses

most + adjective, to mean very

78-81, 84

21 C, 33 E

none 50 B, HOB

much/a lot/a great deal 33 B

nor: see neither (conjunction)

must for advice

not: contracted to n't 103

and ought in indirect speech

not only/till + inversion 45

287 A

not/so representing noun clauses

compared to ought/should 141

231, 347

must for deduction: form 156

not as/so ... as 21 A, 22 B, 34 A,

compared to may/might 157

341

. must/have to: see obligation

not only . . . but also 326

my 62-4

nothing 51 A, 51 C, 52 A

notice (verb) 273

needn't + perfect infinitive

noun clauses 343-7

152-4

after abstract nouns 345 needn't/could + perfect infinitive

after adjectives/participles 344

154 A

as subject 343

needn't/shouldn't + perfect

after verbs 346

infinitive 154 B

beginning with wh-words 346 E

needn't have done/didn't have to

nouns 10-16

do 153

collective 12 H

ought: form 139

compound 12 M, 14 E, 16

ought/should compared to

countable nouns 2, 13 C~Emust/have to 141

function 10 B

ought/should + continuous

gender 11

infinitive 142

kinds 10 A

ought/should + perfect infinitive

with of for possession 15

143, 154 B

plural forms 12

should; form 140

possessive/genitive case 14-15 oblige + object + infinitive 244 A

proper nouns 6 E-G

obviously 40 A

uncountable/mass 13

occasionally 38 A-B

see also abstract nouns

occur to: + infinitive 241 B, 241 D

now 37 A

+ that 346 A, 346 C

nowhere 36 B, 45, 52 A

odd (= strange)

numerals 348-51

+ infinitive 26 B2

+ that 236 B

of: after adjectives/participles 96

object

all/both/each + of 48

direct/indirect becoming subject all/both/few etc. + oi + of passive verb 302, 303 C whom/which 80, 82

omission of relative pronoun

both of 47

object 74 B-C, 75 B-C

a few/little of 5 A-B

order of direct/indirect objects

good/kind etc, of sb + infinitive

66, 88

26 B

order of object and adverb in

neither/either of 49 B

phrasal verbs 362-3

+ noun (possessive/genitive) 15 B

verb + object + infinitive 89 A,

of all 34 C

243-4

after words of quantity 16 Bl

verb + to + object 89 B

some/any/none of 50

object to 262 B

after verbs 97

A Practical English Grammar

323

obligation 139-55

which of 56 B, 59 B

have to compared to must 145

off (adverb) 93 D, 99

have to/have got to 144 C before adverbs of manner 39

have to/must: forms 144

+ verb + noun subject 36 E

have to?/must?/need? 151 off (preposition) 93 D, 99

have to/need: negative forms 149

offer (verb)

must/needn't in indirect speech

+ direct/indirect object 88 A

325

in indirect speech 286 A, 318 C

must not/need not 146-7

+ infinitive 241 A

need: forms 148

officially 40 B

need not compared to other

often 38 A-B

forms 150

old 19 B

on (adverb) 94 C, 99

in indirect speech 311 B

in directions 93 F

compared to must/have to 141

before adverbs of manner 39

for obligation 141-3

transport 93 D

with perfect infinitive 143

on (preposition) 94 C. 99

our 62, 64 A

in adverb phrases 36 F

ours 62, 64 A

with day/date 90 A

ourselves 70-1

in directions 93 F

out 36 E, 39, 93 D-E

on arrival/arriving 90 D

out of 93 D-E

on time 90 C

over 95 A, 99

transport 93 D

owing to 27 A

after verbs 97

own (adjective/pronoun) 63 C

once 38 A-B

one (adjective/pronoun)

pardon (verb) 262 C

and a/an 2 E, 4. 349 B, 350

participles: misrelated 280

after adjectives 24

see past participle, perfect

one another 53 C

participle, present participle

one ..., another/otherfs)...

passive 302-6

53 B

form of tenses 302

this/that one 9 C

active and passive equivalents

one (indefinite pronoun) 62, 68 A

303

one's (possessive adjective) 62, get replacing be 303 B

68 A

infinitives after passive verbs

one's own 63 C

245 B-F, 306

oneself 70-1

prepositions with passive verbs

only: adverb 41 D

305

+ hy/when etc, with inversion

questions in the passive 303 D

45, 104 F

that... should + passive

if only 228, 301 E

infinitive 235, 302 E-F

+ infinitive as connective 249 A

uses 304

not only ... but also 326

past continuous tense: form 178

the only + noun/one + infinitive alternative to simple past 181

250 A

combined with simple past

onto 94 C

179 D-E

opposite 95 D

past equivalent of present

or 326

continuous 180 A-B

either ... or 49 B

usually unchanged in indirect

or (else)/otherwise 226 E-F

speech 309 B-C

whether ... or 226 B

past participle: form 182 A, 279 A

order

use as adjective 17 B, 26 F,

+ object + infinitive 244 A, 320 279 Bl

+ that 235, 321 B3

with have + object 119

ordinal numbers 350-1

in passive tenses 302

ordinary verbs 101-5

replacing subject + passive verb

other/others 53 A-B

279 B3

Otherwise 226 E-F, 327 C past perfect continuous tense 197 ought: form 106, 107 B, 139 past perfect tense: form 194 A for advice 141 B2, 287 A, 311 C in conditional sentences 223

for assumption 160 D, 311 B

in indirect speech 196, 308 B,

with continuous infinitive 142

309

A Practical English Grammar

324

for actions viewed in retrospect

with someone, anyone etc. 69

194 B

or the 7 A6

in time clauses 195

possessive case of nouns 14-15

see also subjunctive

possessive pronouns 62, 64

past simple tense

possibility 132-5

see simple past tense

possible

past subjunctive: form 290 B

+ (for + object +) infinitive

after as if/though 292

26 D

after if 222-9

+ that 27 E

after if only 228 B

possibly 40 A

after it is time + subject 293

postpone + gerund 261 A

unreal pasts in indirect speech

prefer/would prefer 295 A-C,

310

297-8

after wish + subject 300 prefer + gerund + to + gerund

after would rather/sooner +

295 C, 297 Al

subject 297 B, 298 D

prefer + noun + to + noun

perfect infinitive 255, 306 A-B

297 Al

perfect infinitive continuous 256,would prefer + infinitive 295 A,

306 D

298 C

perfect participle: active 278

would prefer + object +

passive 279 C

infinitive 297 B, 298 D

perhaps 40 A

preference 295, 297-8

permission 127-31

prepared/be prepared: + for 97

see also can/could for permission

+ infinitive 241 A, 241 C

permit (verb) 244 A, 267 Dprepositions 86-99

personal pronouns 65-9

after adjectives/participles 96

form and use 65

or adverbs 99

indefinite pronouns (you, one,

in end position 87

they) 68

+ gerund 86, 98, 259

uses of it 67 A-B

before nouns/pronouns 86-7

position of pronoun objects 66.88 omission/use before indirect

pronoun objects of phrasal verbs objects 88, 89 B

66 B,. 362

of position 93 F, 94-5

they used with someone etc. 69 of time and date 90-2

persuade + object + infinitive

of travel and movement 93

244 A-B

after verbs 97, 362-3

phrasal verbs 362-3

present continuous tense 164-71

plan (verb)

form and spelling 164-5

+ continuous infinitive 254 B3

with always 167 B

+ infinitive 241 A

for future plans 166 C

plurals of nouns 12

for present actions 166 A-B

point

verbs used/not used in 168-71

there's no point in/what's the

present participle 272-7

point of? 98 A

form and spelling 165, 272 A

poor: the poor 23 A

as adjective 17 B, 26 E

various meanings 18 D

after catch/find/have + object

possessive adjectives: form 62

274

agreement 63 A

after come, go, be busy 275

for clothes and parts of body 63 B to form continuous infinitives

with gerund 262

254, 256

with have + object 121, 272 B3

negative imperative 258, 281

in indirect speech 272 Bo, 324 C

no + gerund 258

replacing main clause 276 promise

replacing clause of reason 277

+ continuous infinitive 254 B3

replacing relative clause 77 B,

+ infinitive 241 A, 241 D

272 B4

+ indirect object 88 C

after spend/waste + object 275 B

+ that 346 A

summary of uses 272 B

pronouns: see interrogatives,

after verbs of sensation 273

personal pronouns, possessive

present perfect continuous tense

pronouns, relative pronouns etc.

190-3

propose (= intend) + infinitive

A Practical English Grammar

325

present perfect tense 182-9

269 C

form 182 A

propose (= suggest)

with ever 185 D

+ gerund 261 A-B, 262 B,

with for and since 187

269 C, 289 C

with it is ... since 188

+ that 289 C, 346 A

with just 183

prove: + infinitive 241 A

and simple past 184-9

+ that 346 A

with (that). .. ever in

provided (that) 226 G

comparisons 21 C

purpose 334-7

present simple tense

avoid/prevent + gerund 336 C

see simple present tense

clauses of purpose 336

present subjunctive: form 290 A for + gerund 334 D

I/he/she/it were 222 B, 225, 287 C

go/come + infinitive/imperative

use 291

335

presently (= soon) 29 C

in case/lest 337

presume: in active, + that 245 A in order/so as + infinitive

in passive, + infinitive or that

334 B-C

245 B, 306 A

in order that/so that/that 336

presumably 40 A

infinitive + noun + preposition

pretend

334 D

+ continuous infinitive 241 G,

infinitive of purpose 334 A

254 B2

negative purpose clauses 336 C

+ infinitive 241 A, 241 D

put off + gerund 259 B

+ perfect infinitive 241 H,

255 Cl, 256 B

+ that 346 A

quantifiers

pretty: + adjective 19 D

a lot (oft/lots (of)/a great deal (of)

adjective/adverb 30 A

25 B. 33 B

prettily 30 B

all (of) 46 A. 46 C, 48 A-C

prevent + gerund 261 A

both (of) 47, 48 A-C

probable + that 27 E

enough 252 B

probably

(a) few/(a> little 5

adverb equivalent of likely 29 B

many/much 25

sentence adverb 40 A

cardinal numbers 348-9

progressive tenses

some/any/no/none 50

see past/present etc. continuousquestion tags 110

tenses

questions

prohibition: forbid 244 A-B, 320 B

with affirmative verb 65 B2,

must not 146

303 D

with affirmative verb after

phrasal verbs in 81 D

introductory phrases 104 C3

preposition in end position 74 C,

beginning with auxiliaries 108

75 C

comment tags 111

preposition + whom/which 74 C,

with how/wh- 54-61

81 C

in indirect speech 317-19

what and which 83

interrogative verb forms 104-5,

whoever, whichever etc. 85

107 A-B

relative pronouns 72-85

question tags 110

forms 73, 78

short answers to questions 108 remember

see also invitations, obligation,

not used in continuous 168 C

permission, requests

with how/wh- + clause 268 C

quite 41 C, 43

with how/wh- + infinitive 242

with infinitive or gerund

268 A-B

rarely 38 A. 38 C

with possessive adjective/pronoun

rather 41 C, 42

+ gerund 262 B

and fairly 42 A-C

remind

rather than ... I would 298 C

+ object + infinitive 244 A

would rather 297-8 C

+ object + that 244 D

really 41 C

remind somebody of something

reason, clauses of 338 A

97

as/because 332 B-C

reminding + clause in indirect

A Practical English Grammar

326

because and for 330 speech 324 C

replaced by participle phrase 277 reply with direct/indirect speech

recently 37 A

316 C

with present perfect 185 C report (passive): + infinitive 306 A

reciprocal pronouns 53 C, 70 B

+ perfect infinitive 255 C2,

recommend

256 B

+ gerund or object + infinitive

reported speech

267 D, 320 A

see indirect speech

with that 235

request

reflexive pronouns 70

+ object + infinitive 244 A

refuse: and agree/accept 269 A + that 244 E

in indirect speech 315 A

requests 283-5

+ infinitive 241 A, 241 C

can/could/may/might I 131, 283

regret

could/couldn't you 284 A

+ gerund/infinitive 268 A-B I should/would be grateful if you

+ noun/pronoun or that 268 C

would 224 A, 284 H

relative adverbs 75 E

I wish you would 284 J, 301 D

relative clauses 72-85

I wonder(ed)/was wondering if

all, both etc. + of +

284 K

whom/which 80

if you would 224 A, 284 F

cleft sentences 67 D, 76, 117

perhaps you would 284 E

commas in 84

would you be good enough/so

connective 82

good as 252 C, 284 I

defining 72-7, 84

would you like to 284 G

non-defining 78-81, 84

would you mind 263 C, 284 D

object pronoun omitted in

you might 285

74 B-C, 75 B-C

you will... won't you 284 C

require

senses, verbs of

it requires + gerund/passive

not used in continuous 168 A

infinitive 267 E

169-70

resent + gerund 261 A

with present participle or bare

resolve: + infinitive 241 A, 241 F infinitive 273

+ that 241 F, 346 A, 346 Dsentence adverbs 40

result, clauses of 338 B, 339

sequence of tenses 217-18

right: (adjective) 26 B-C, 30 A shall: in commands 234 B, 282 A

(adverb) 30 A

for determination 208 li

rightly 30 B

in future forms 207-8, 211 A

risk + gerund 261 A

in indirect speech 308 C, 318

round: (adverb) position 39

for intention 234 A

adverb/preposition 99

let's ..., shall we? 110 A

followed by verb + subject shall I/we? 233, 318

36 E-F

shall you? 234 C

and will 208

's (contraction of is/has) 102 B

she 22 C, 65

's/s' (possessive case) 14 short (adjective/adverb) 30 A

say

shortly 30 B

without comma in indirect speech should

307

after command/order 237 F,

in indirect commands/advice 321

321 B3

in passive + infinitive 306 A

after if 224 E, 237 E

and tell 316 A-B

after in case/lest 237 C. 337

scarcely 44, 110 B

in purpose clauses (formal)

scarcely ever/scarcely ... when

237 C-D, 336 B-C

45

+ subject 224 E, 225 B

sea: at sea/at the sea 8 C that... should after adjectives

see

236

used/not used in continuous

that... should for indirect

168 A, 170 A

commands 237 F, 321 B3

+ how/wh- + infinitive 242 A

that... should after verbs 235.

+ object + bare infinitive 246 C,

302 E-F

273 B

who/what/where etc. + should

+ object + present participle

... but 237 B

A Practical English Grammar

327

273 A

after why, querying justice of

(only) to see as connective 249

assumption 237 A

in passive + full infinitive 246 C

should for advice, assumption.

+ that 346 A-B

obligation

seeing that: (= as) 338 A

form 106, 107 B, 140

(= when) 333 C

for. advice 141 B2, 287 A, 287 C

seem: + adjective 18 B for advice in indirect speech

not used in continuous 168 F

311 C-D, 318 B, 321 B

+ continuous infinitive 241 G,

for assumption 160 B-C

254

for obligation 141-2

+infinitive 240 A-B, 241 for obligation in indirect speech

+perfect infinitive 255 Cl, 311 B-C, 322 B

256 B

for unfulfilled obligation 143

+ that 346 A-C

shouldn't/needn't have done

seldom 38 A-C, 45, 110 B 154 B

should/would for first person:

+ adjective/adverb with inversion

in conditional 219-20, 222-3

45, 339 C

conditional forms in indirect

+ adjective/adverb + that

speech 308 C

339 B-C

if I were you I should/would

+ as + infinitive of purpose

225 A2. 287 C

334 B

+ think 231

+ auxiliary + subject 112 A

show

conjunction meaning therefore

+ indirect object 88 C

327 D-E

+ object + how/wh- + infinitive not so/as + adjective/adverb +

242 A, 244 C

as 21 A, 34 A

+ that 244 D

pronoun + auxiliary 109 A

simple past tense 175-7 + that to introduce clause of

form and spelling 175

purpose 336

in indirect speech 196, 308-9

after think etc, to represent that-

irregular verbs 176, 364

clause 231 A, 347

and past continuous 179 D-E,

some

181

= a certain amount/number of

for past events and habits 177

50 A, 50 C

and past perfect 194-6

some day 4 A2

and present perfect 184-9 some or other 50 C

unreal pasts: see subjunctive

some ... other/others 53 B

simple present tense 172-4

somebody 51-2, 110 C

form and spelling 172

somehow 35 G

in conditional clauses 221 someone 51-2, 110 C

for dramatic narrative 174 C

something 51 A, 51 C, 52 A

for planned future actions 174 D, sometimes 38 A-B, 173 B

199

somewhere 36 A-B, 52 A

for habitual actions 173

soon 37 A

in newspaper headlines 174 B

sooner

to introduce quotations etc. 174 A no sooner . .. than 45, 342 E in time clauses 174 G, 342 Bl the sooner ... the sooner 342 E with verbs not used in continuous would sooner 297, 298 A 174 E sorry about/for 27 B, 271 B

since (adverb) 37 A, 37 C, 91 A sound (verb): + adjective 18 B since (conjunction) 91 A, 188, not used in continuous 168 F 342 C spelling rules 354-61

= as/because 332. 338 A adding s/es/ies 12 A-C, 172 C

since (preposition) 91 A, 185 D, doubling final consonant 168 B,

187B

175 B, 355

small 18 D

dropping final e 165 A, 356

and little 19 B

endings in ce and ge 357

smell (verb): + adjective 18 B

endings in y 165 C, 175 B. 359

not used in continuous 168 A,

hyphens 361

169 C

ie and ei 360

+ object + present participle

the suffix ful 358

273 A

spend + object + present

A Practical English Grammar

328

so

participle 275 B

+ adjective + as + infinitive start + gerund/infinitive 267 A

252 C

still: adjective/adverb 30 A

(only) to be told as connective

adverb of time 37 D

link 249 B

conjunction 327 F

and say 316 A-B

stop (= cease/halt) 270 B + that 244 D, 346 A

stupid 26 B

tenses? continuous

stupidly 35 E

verbs not used in 168-71

subject: gerund 258

see future forms, past continuous

infinitive 240

tense, present continuous tense

introductory it 67 D

etc.

that-clause 343

tenses, sequence of 217-18

subjunctive 290-3

than

see also past subjunctive am!

with comparatives 21 B, 22,

present subjunctive

34 B, 341

subordinate clauses 217 + gerund or infinitive 341 D

see also clauses

+ pronoun (+ auxiliary) 22

such 339

that (relative pronoun) 72-6

suggest

as object, often omitted 74 B-C,

+ gerund 261 A, 262 B, 289 C-D 75 B-C

in indirect speech 289 D, 322

or which 75 A-C

suggestions 289

or who/whom 74 A-C

in indirect speech 289 D, 318 D, that + adjective 341 A

322 A

that/those 9

superlative forms

thatand that... should clauses:

adjectives 20

introduced by it 67 D, 346 C

adverbs 31

with it + be + adjective 26-7,

the + superlative adjective/

236, 343 A

pronoun 24 B

after nouns 343 C

see also comparison constructions so that/in order that/that 336 B

suppose

so/such ... that 339

in passive, + infinitive 245 C-E, with statements in indirect

306 B

speech 307

suppose I/we? for suggestions

with subject + be + adjective

289 B

27 B-F, 344

suppose/supposing? = what if? after verbs 302 E, 346

226 H

the (the definite article) 6-8

+ that 346 A

+ adjective, to represent class

sure 27 A

6 D, 23

surely 40 A

+ adjective + one/ones 24 D

+ comparative 24 B

take the trouble 241 B-C

+ comparative (the .. . the ...)

take to 259 B

21 D, 34 B

taste: + adjective 18 B-C

+ first/second/only 6 B5

used/not used in continuous

+ noun, to represent class 6 C

168 A, 169 D

omission 7-8

teach 244 A, 244 C-D

with proper nouns 6 E-G

tell: + direct/indirect object 88

+ superlative 6 B5, 24 B

+ how/wh346 E

+ superlative etc. + infinitive

+ object + how + infinitive

77 A

244 C

their (possessive adjective) 62

+ object + infinitive 244 A theirs (possessive pronoun) 62

them 22 C, 65-6

expressions with possessive case

themselves

15 A3

emphasizing pronoun 71

prepositions of time 90-2

reflexive pronoun 70

time clauses 195, 309 C, 342

then 37 A

conjunctions with 331

there (adverb) 36 C

future forms not used in 342 B

there (pronoun)

in indirect speech 309 C

there is/are 116

to (infinitive particle) 238

A Practical English Grammar

329

there is/it is 117

bare infinitive (without to) 246

therefore 327 E

particle or preposition? 260

they

representing its infinitive 247

with either/neither etc. 69

to (preposition)

as indefinite pronoun 68 B with adjectives/participles 96,

subject pronoun 22 C, 65

260 B

thine 62

omitted with indirect + direct

think

object 88

use with continuous tenses 168 C, and till/until for time 92 A

171 A

for travel and movement 93 A-C

+ it + adjective + infinitive

after verbs 97, 260 B

240 F

with verbs of communication 89

in passive + infinitive 245,

too (adverb) 41 A-B, 252 A

306 A, 306 D

too = also 112 A

should/would think 231 A-B

town; with/without the 8 E

+ so/not 231 A, 347 A

transitive verbs 362

+ that 346 A

turn + adjective/adverb 18 B-C

+ wh'/how + clause 346 E

+ wh-/how + infinitive 242 A

uncountable nouns 13

this/these 9

under 95 B-C, 99

this week etc. with present understand

perfect or simple past tense

not used in continuous 168 C

185 B

+ gerund 261

thou, thee 65 A

+ his/him etc. + gerund 262 B

though meaning 'but/yet' 327 G

+ how/wh- + infinitive 242 A

though/although 327 G, 329 B,

+ how/wh- + noun clause 346 A,

329 D, 333 A-C, 340

346 E

compared to in spite of 329

in passive + infinitive 245,

through (adverb/preposition) 99 255 C, 306 A

thy 62

undertake

till 92 A, 342 A-B

+ continuous infinitive 254 B3

time

+ infinitive/that 241 A, 241 D

in (good) time, on time 90 C

unless 226 C

it's time 293

unreal pasts: see past subjunctive

time

until 92 A, 342 A-B

adverbs of frequency 38

up 36 E-F, 39, 99

adverbs of time 37

upset (adjective) 18 D

as, when, while 331

urge

expressions in indirect speech

in indirect speech 320 A, 320 C,

314

322 A2, 322 C

expressions followed by inversion + object + infinitive 244 A

45. 342 E

+ that... should 235, 302 E

us 22 B-C, 65

were instead of was 225, 228 B,

used (adjective) 163

290 B, 292

used (auxiliary verb) 107 C, 162 after as if/though 292

usually 38 A-B, 173 B

in conditional constructions 225

if I were you 287 C

verbs

after U only 228 B

active to passive 302

what! in exclamations 26 B2,

active tenses, table of 102 A

323 Al

auxiliaries and modal auxiliaries what (interrogative) 54-9, 61

106-12

and how for measurements 58 E

classes of verbs 100

+ noun clause 346 E

not used in continuous tenses

object of preposition 57 B

168-71

subject/object of verb 56 C

imperative 281

for things 54, 56 C, 58

interrogative 104-5

what about? for suggestions

interrogative not used after

289 B

certain phrases 104 C

what ever (for)? 61

introduction 100

what... for? 58 B

irregular 364

what is he? 58 D

negative forms 103

what... like? 58 C

A Practical English Grammar

330

negative interrogative forms 105compared with which 59 A, 59 C only one negative per sentence what (relative pronoun) 83

103 C

+ infinitive 242 A

ordinary verbs 101-5

whatever 85 B-D

passive forms 302-6

when

phrasal verbs 362-3

and as/while 331, 333 C,

principal parts of active verb 101342 A-B

of the senses 168-70, 273 + infinitive 242 A

subjunctive 290-3

interrogative adverb 60 B

see also auxiliary verbs,

+ noun clause 346 E

conditional tenses, future forms, relative adverb 75 E

present perfect tense, simple past

when ever? 61

tense etc.

whenever 85 B-C, 173 B

very 41

where

vowels 354

+ infinitive 242 A, 242 C

interrogative adverb 60 C

warmly 29 C

+ noun clause 346 E

warn + object + infinitive in

relative adverb 75 E

indirect speech 320

where ever? 61

was: see be

wherever 85 B-D

watch

whether

+ object + bare infinitive 244 A

in indirect questions 317 E

+ object + present participle

+ infinitive 242 B

273 A-C

+ noun clause 346 E

we 22 B-C, 65

which (adjective/pronoun) +

weights 353 A

infinitive 242 A

well (adverb) 31 B, 35, 39 which (interrogative) 54-7, 59

may as well 288

object of preposition 57 B

may well 35 F

subject/object of verb 56 B

position 35 F

compared with who/what 59

which (relative) 73, 77-8, 80-4

for requests 284 B-C

all, both etc. + of which 80 and shall 208

in connective clauses 82-3and want/wish/would like 210

in defining clauses 73, 75 A-C,

wish

75 E

not used in continuous 168 B

+ infinitive 242 A

+ for + noun/pronoun 299 B

in non-defining clauses 78, 80-1 in greetings 299 B

and what 83

+ (object +) infinitive 299 A

whichever 85 A, 85 C

+ subject + unreal past 300,

while 331 B, 333 B

310 A

who (interrogative) 54-7, 59, 61 + (that +) subject + would

object of preposition 57 A

284 J, 301

subject/object of verb 56 Aand want/would like 299

subject of affirmative verb 55 who wish(ed) replaced by wishing

compared with which 59 B 77 B3

who ever 61, 85 D

with 75 D. 95 G

who (relative) 73, 78 B, 82 wonder

in cleft sentences 76

+ how/wh- + clause 346 E

object of verb 74 B, 79 B + how/wh- + infinitive 242 A-B

subject of verb 74 A, 79 A + if/whether in indirect questions

who ever? 61, 85 D

317 B-C, 318 A

whoever 85 A, 85 C

+ that + clause 346 A

whom (interrogative pronoun) 54

work(a) (noun) 8 D, 13 A, 13 C

object of preposition 57 A

worse/worst 20 E

object of verb 56 A

worth + gerund 261 A, 261 C

whom (relative pronoun) 73

would

all/both etc. of whom 80, 82

for advice 287 C-D

object of preposition 74 C. 79 C for characteristic action 230 C

object of verb 74 B, 79 B, 82

in conditional sentences 219-20,

whose.

222-6,228-9

interrogative adjective/pronoun

in indirect speech 308 B-C

54-5, 56 A

for obstinate insistence 230 B

A Practical English Grammar

331

relative pronoun 73, 74 D, 75 D, for invitations 286

79 D

for past intention 232

why: interrogative 60 A

for past routine 230 A

relative 75 E

in purpose clauses 336

why don't you/why not? 287 E,

for requests 284

289 B

would/should think 231

why ever/why ever not? 61see also would like, would

will

rather/sooner

for assumption 160 A, 160 C

would like

and be going to 205

+ gerund 295 B

for commands 282 B

+ (object +) infinitive 243 A

for future 207-9

if you (would) like 224 D

and future continuous 214 and want 296, 299

for habits 230 A

and wish 299, 301 C

for obstinate insistence 224 C,

and would care 294 B-C

330 B

would you like? invitations 286

for intention 201, 205, 214 would you like? requests 284 G

for invitations 210 B, 286 A-B

would rather/sooner 297-8

wrong: adjective/adverb 30 A

yet 37 D, 327

+ (of + object +) infinitive

you: indefinite pronoun 68 A

26 Bl

personal pronoun 65

wrongly 30 B

, young: position 19 B

your/yours 62-4

yes and no in indirect speechyourself: emphasizing pronoun 71 323 B reflexive pronoun 70

FAQs

How are you politely answer? ›

Here are some example responses:
  1. I'm fine, thanks. How about you?
  2. Good, thanks. And you?
  3. I'm good. And yourself?
  4. Not bad. How are you?
  5. Fine, and you?
  6. I'm doing well, and you?
  7. Good, how about you?

How are you please give me answer? ›

“Great!” “I'm doing really well, thank you,” or “Fantastic!” are all good ways to answer.

Could you please or would you please which is more polite? ›

“Would you” and “Could you” are equally polite and valid ways to make a request. “Could you” sounds more polite than “Would you.” “Would you” sounds more insistent and is more often used in angry requests, such as “Would you please hurry up!”

Is it polite to ask could you please? ›

Abhishek Srivastava asked: Should I use "Could you please..." or "Would you please..."? Both of these choices are polite ways to ask someone to do something, as in: Could you please email me the directions to your house? Would you please email me the directions to your house?

How do you say formal way to answer? ›

Some common synonyms of answer are rejoinder, reply, response, and retort.

How do you answer yes in a formal way? ›

Yes! Of course there is! In fact, we have several ways to say yes in English for casual and professional situations.
...
Polite Ways to Say Yes in English
  1. Yeah, sure. Here you go.
  2. No problem! I'm always happy to help.
  3. Yep! I will be right there. ...
  4. Yeah, I'd be happy to!
  5. Cool. ...
  6. You got it.
  7. Okay.
20 Sept 2017

How do you reply to can I ask? ›

What's the most polite way to answer "can I ask you a question?" If you're willing to hear them out, then “Yes, you may” is polite, formal and grammatically correct.

How do you do how do you reply this question? ›

What should be the correct answer to “How do you do?” “How do you do?” is not generally thought of as a genuine question about your well-being. Instead it's treated more like a salutation. The proper answer is either, “Fine, thank you,” or “How do you do?” or some form thereof.

How do you politely ask for something? ›

Here are some better phrases to make polite requests in English:
  1. “Do you mind…?.”
  2. “Would you mind…?
  3. “Could I…?”
  4. “Would it be ok if…?”
  5. “Would it be possible…?”
  6. “Would you be willing to…?”

What to use instead of could you please? ›

Some other phrases you could use are:
  • Would it be possible to ...
  • Please could you,
  • Ideally, we'd like this by.
  • If you could X, it would be very much appreciated.
21 Mar 2016

Is it polite to say please kindly? ›

Try to use it in formal emails, like the meeting starts at 2 pm, kindly bring your laptop. Also if you are let's say a tour leader and you have a mic and you want to inform everyone to kindly be back to the station before lunch time. In all these cases you can substitute please with kindly, but do not use both.

Could you please vs Please could you? ›

Changing the word order to "could you please" is no more or less polite - it's a matter of style. whether requests starting with "Please can/could you..." render the same degree of politeness as those that start with "Could you please...".

Could or can you please help me? ›

On my polite-o-meter, the two sentences score very close: "Could you help me, please?", "Could you please help me?". The former sounds more formal. Use whichever one you want and you'll be more polite than most people.

Could you please vs May you please? ›

Generally speaking, “could” is more polite than “can, and we consider “may” to be the most polite (source). While we often use “could” for the past tense or the conditional mood, we can also use it to form requests for the present. When we use it in this way, it carries less force and is polite and formal.

What's a professional way to say yes? ›

Ways of saying yes - thesaurus
  1. yes. adverb. used for telling someone that what they have said or asked is true or correct.
  2. definitely. adverb. used for emphasizing that you mean 'yes'
  3. of course. adverb. ...
  4. sure. adverb. ...
  5. naturally. adverb. ...
  6. that's right. phrase. ...
  7. I don't mind if I do. phrase. ...
  8. by all means. phrase.

How do you say please respond? ›

I would really appreciate a quick (an urgent) response. Another way is to state that you are in a hurry for some reason (specified or unspecified) a for example: This matter is urgent for me (because...), can you please respond quickly? Don't forget that a thank you goes a long way.

How do you respond using response? ›

Respond is a verb. "Please respond to my question." Response is a noun. "I am waiting for your response to my question."

How do you agree in a formal way? ›

Expressing agreement
  1. I agree with you 100 percent.
  2. I couldn't agree with you more.
  3. That's so true.
  4. That's for sure.
  5. (slang) Tell me about it!
  6. You're absolutely right.
  7. Absolutely.
  8. That's exactly how I feel.

How do you say yes in a short way? ›

Informal
  1. Yes.
  2. Ya.
  3. Yep.
  4. Yup.
  5. YAAAAAS.
  6. Totally.
  7. Totes.
  8. Sure.

How do you respond to I will let you know professionally? ›

You reply on letterhead stationery: Thank you for reaching out to our company, I will take care of this myself and determine if we are in a position to offer a proposal. I can call or email you on Friday to let you know if we can accommodate you and, if so, discuss particulars then.

How is it doing response? ›

You'll hear it regularly in speech, and people actually might think it sounds funny/wrong to say “Well.” So, it's perfectly acceptable to respond to “How are you doing?” with “Good!” Even so, if someone asks “How are you doing?” then it's grammatically correct to say “Well.”

How do you respond to a nosy question? ›

10 assertive tips on dealing with nosy questions
  1. Go with your gut. ...
  2. Don't be rude back. ...
  3. Use “I” statements. ...
  4. Find out more if appropriate. ...
  5. Say how you feel about being asked or about giving the information. ...
  6. Depersonalise your answer. ...
  7. Express your feelings if you want to. ...
  8. Move them on.
9 Jan 2013

Can you answer okay to a question? ›

Okay is the informal (and somewhat trivial) version of yes, so it is appropriate to use it when agreeing to something, for example, "Would you like to go to the mall?" But when being used as an answer for something that either requires more description or a definitive answer, like "Was there ice cream at the party?" is ...

What to say to avoid answering a question? ›

10 English Phrases to Avoid Answering a Question
  • #1 – No comment.
  • #2 – I'm not at liberty to say.
  • #3 – Wait and see.
  • #4 – Let me get back to you.
  • #5 – I'm sorry, that's confidential.
  • #6 – (Sorry) That's personal.
  • #7 – I'd rather not talk about it.
  • #8 – Mind your own business.

What is simple polite request? ›

Making Polite Requests in English with Examples (Formal) I Was Wondering If You Could/Would It Be Possible For You To. I Would Be Grateful If You Could/I Would Appreciate It If You Could. Would You Be So Kind As To. We Request That/You Are Requested Not to Do Something.

Could you could you please? ›

Originally Answered: "Can you please" or "Could you please" -- which is correct? "Could" is the polite form of "can"—so both are correct, but we use them in different situations. We use "can" when we are telling someone to do something. We use "could" when we are making a request.

Can you please kindly advise? ›

“Kindly advise” is a phrase you may see in a letter or email asking politely for advice from someone. Advise is a verb and when you advise someone you are giving them advice. You are not asking for kindly advice but asking in a polite way for advice.

Could I may I can I Could you or can you? ›

"Can I" is best for semi-formal situations. "Could I" is best for semi-formal situations. "May I" is best for semi-formal situations.

What can I say instead of kindly note? ›

Greetings, One could say: “cordially noted”, “graciously noted”, “politely noted”, “thoughtfully noted”, “agreeably noted”.

How do you say please advise politely? ›

But to some people, it can come across as redundant, stuffy, or passive aggressive.
...
Here are a few possible synonyms for “please advise”:
  1. Let me know.
  2. Get back to me.
  3. Can you give me your thoughts, answers, or input?
  4. Give me the information I already asked for in the body of this email.
  5. I'm waiting for you to respond.
8 May 2019

Can you please advise this? ›

Please advise on this matter

In formal communication, this is a polite way to ask for someone's opinion about some matter. If you don't feel comfortable using the phrase but still want to sound formal, you could say, “I'd appreciate your input on this,” or “Would you please share your opinion on this matter?”

How do you say who are you politely? ›

As far as politeness goes, the following examples, along with what JeremyC has already suggested, would also be some of the safest ways to ask people for their names when talking with them over the phone: Could you please tell me who I'm speaking with? May I ask who's calling? Would you mind telling who's talking?

What are some polite words? ›

9 Things Polite People Always Say
  • Please.
  • Thank You.
  • You're Welcome.
  • Pardon Me.
  • Excuse Me.
  • I'm Sorry.
  • May I Help You?
  • I Would Like... / May I Please Have...?
21 Jul 2022

How do you kindly ask for something? ›

Here are some better phrases to make polite requests in English:
  1. “Do you mind…?.”
  2. “Would you mind…?
  3. “Could I…?”
  4. “Would it be ok if…?”
  5. “Would it be possible…?”
  6. “Would you be willing to…?”

How do you do reply in Chat? ›

Reply to a chat message
  1. Open the Chat app or Gmail app .
  2. On the bottom, tap Chat or Spaces .
  3. Open a chat message or a space.
  4. If you're in a space, below the message, tap Reply .
  5. Enter your message or select a suggestion. You can customize a suggested message before you send it.
  6. Tap Send .

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